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MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

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INSTRUMENTATION

• MONITORING OF PROCESSES AND


OPERATIONS
• CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND
OPERATIONS
• EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING
ANALYSIS
• COMPUTER-AIDED MACHINES AND
PROCESSES
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Measurement and
Measurement
System

Measurement is an act of assigning a


specific value to a physical variable
detected by a sensor.

A Measurement system includes all the


components necessary for producing a
measurement.

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Measurement system

• Measures a physical quantity


• Displays result to an operator
– and/or
• Records result
– and/or
• Transmits to another system (e.g. a
control system)

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Experimental test
plan

To get effective measurements, we need to


draw a test plan:

• (a) Parameter Design Plan


• (b) System and Tolerance Design Plan
• (c) Data Reduction Plan

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Analogue and digital
systems

• Output of an analogue system varies


continuously
• Output of a digital system varies in
discrete steps.

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Measurement System
DISTORSIONS
VARIABLE
ENERGY
INPUT
PROCESS

FINAL MEASUREMENT
CONTROL

CONTROLER

VALUE OF THE
CONTROLED
VARIABLE

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The General
Measurement
System (GMS)
Process
Being Monitored
Control
stage

Sensor

Signal Conditioning Stages

Output
Transducer Stage 1 … Stage n stage

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The General
Measurement System
(GMS)
Measurand

Sensing
element

Indicator or
recorder
Signal
modification
subsystem
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The General
Measurement
System (GMS)

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Functional elements of an
instrument or a measurement
system
Data
stoarage/playback
element

Measured Primary Variable Variable Data Data


sensing conversion manipulation transmision presentation Observer
medium element element element element element

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The General
Measurement System
(GMS)

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Measurement System
ELEMENT FUNCTION
Captor Pick-up:
preluarea informaţiei brute de la
sursă
Conditioning Conditioning:
Modification od the physical
nature of the mesaurend followed
by normalization (amplification,
filtering, linearization..).
A/N Conversion Conversion:
Signal form conversion.
Commutation Commutation:
Switch Information commutation to
different signal sources
.
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Measurement System
Signal Signal treatement:
conditioning (corelation, auto
correlation ..)
Indicator Measurement display
(Voltage Analogic
current, etc.) Numeric

Recording Recording signals for


instruments analysis.
Power supply Energy .
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