Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

Energy

Ms. Scott
The Law of Conservation of
Energy

• Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it


may be transformed from one form into
another, but the total amount of energy
never changes.
What is energy?

• “the ability to do work”


• The combination of energy and matter
make up the universe:
– Matter is substance, and energy is the
mover of substance.
Energy is
nature’s way of keeping score.
We sense energy only
when the score
changes,
either a transformation
from one form of
energy to another,
or a transfer of energy
from one point to
another.
How is all energy divided?
All Energy

Potential Kinetic
Energy Energy

Gravitation Elastic Chemical


Potential Potential Potential
Energy Energy Energy
Potential Kinetic
• energy of position energy of motion, the
or energy in form capable of
storage. doing work
Flowing water
– Water behind a dam A falling hammer
– Hammer over head Electrons regenerating
– Food on the plate ATP in a bio’l cell
PE = mgh
• m = mass (kg)
• h = height (m)
• g = accel due to
gravity
– (9.8 m/s2)
What is Gravitational Potential
Energy?
o Potential energy
due to an
object’s position
Don’t look down, o P.E. = mass x
Rover! height x
Good boy! gravity
What is Potential Energy?
o Energy that is
stored and waiting
to be used later
What is Elastic Potential
Energy?
o Potential energy due
compression or expansion of an
elastic object.

Notice the ball compressing


and expanding
What is Chemical Potential
Energy?
o Potential energy
stored within
the chemical
bonds of an
object
What is Kinetic Energy?
o Energy an object has
due to its motion
o K.E. = .5(mass x
speed2)
KE = 1/2 m v 2

• 4 kg bowling ball .25 kg baseball


• at 10 m/s at 50 m/s
• = .5 (4kg) (10m/s)2 = .5 (.25kg) (50 m/s)2
• = 200 J = 312 J
Which is Kinetic Energy? Which
is Potential?
1. A bicyclist pedaling up a hill
2. An archer with his bow drawn
3. A volleyball player spiking a ball
4. The chemical bonds in sugar
5. The wind blowing through your hair
6. Sitting in the top of a tree
7. A bowling ball rolling down the alley
8. A bowling ball sitting on the rack
Drawing Conclusions
• Two divers of equal mass about to dive
• Diver A has > Potential Energy than B
• Compare divers positions
• Which diver will hit water @ highest speed
• What happens to energy when diver
enters the water?
Diver A
Fastest

Diver B
6 fundamental forms of energy
1. mechanical energy
2. Thermal (heat) energy
3. electromagnetic energy
4. electrical energy
5. nuclear energy
6. chemical energy
What is the source of our
energy?
• The source of
practically all
our energy is
the Sun.
What is Mechanical
Energy?
o Energy due to a
object’s motion
(kinetic) or position
(potential).
The bowling ball has
mechanical energy.
When the ball strikes
the pins,
mechanical energy
is transferred to the
Examples of Mechanical
Energy
What is Electromagnetic
Energy?
o Light energy
o Includes energy
from gamma rays,
xrays, ultraviolet
rays, visible light,
infrared rays,
microwave and
radio bands
What is Electrical Energy?
o Energy caused
by the
movement of
electrons
o Easily
transported
through power
lines and
converted into
What is Chemical Energy?
o Energy that is
available for
release from
chemical reactions.
The chemical bonds
in a matchstick
store energy that is
transformed into
thermal energy
when the match is
struck.
Examples of Chemical
Energy
What is Thermal Energy?
o Heat energy
o The heat energy of an
object determines how
active its atoms are.
A hot object is one whose
atoms and molecules are
excited and show rapid
movement.
A cooler object's molecules
and atoms will show less
QUIZ TIME!
What type of energy
cooks food in a
microwave oven?
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY
What type of energy
is the spinning plate
inside of a
microwave oven?
MECHANICAL ENERGY
QUIZ TIME!
Electrical energy is
transported to your
house through power
lines.
When you plug an electric
fan to a power outlet,
electrical energy is
transform into what type
of energy?
QUIZ TIME!

What energy
transformation occurs
when an electric lamp is
turned on?

ELECTRICAL ENERGY

ELECTROMAGNETIC
What types of energy are
shown below?

Mechanical and Thermal Energy


(Don’t forget friction)
What type of energy is shown
below?

Chemical Energy
What types of energy are
shown below?

Electrical, Mechanical and


Electromagnetic Energy
What type of energy is shown
below?

Chemical Energy (yummy)


What type of energy is shown
below?

Thermal Energy
What types of energy are
shown below?

Mechanical, Electromagnetic,
Electrical, Chemical and
Thermal Energy
The Law of Conservation of
Energy

• Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it


may be transformed from one form into
another, but the total amount of energy
never changes.