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PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION

5.1. INTRODUCTION

5.2. VISCOUS FLOW

Shear stress:

µ - Dynamic viscosity

Boundary layer: the region of flow that develops from the

leading edge of a plate in which the effects of the viscosity are

observed.

The outside boundary of a boundary layer is usually chosen as

the point where the velocity of flow is 99% of the free steam

value.

Three regimes of boundary-layer flow

1. Laminar flow

2. Transitional flow

3. Turbulent flow

The transition occurs when:

Renolds number

For most analytical purposes, the critical number for the transition is usually taken as 5 x

105

The critical Re for transition is strongly dependent on the surface

roughness condition and the “turbulent level” of the free-stream.

The normal range for the beginning of transition is between:

5 x 105 to 106

For very large disturbance present in the flow, transition may begin

with Renolds number as low as

105

For flows that are very free from fluctuation, the transition may not

start until

begin.

The relative shape for the velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flow

The laminar profile is approximately parabolic

Structure of turbulent profile:

Laminar sublayer that is nearly linear.

Turbulent portion which is relatively flat in

comparison with the laminar profile.

The physical mechanism of viscosity in fluids

In laminar flow, the viscosity is attribute to the exchange of momentum

between different laminas by the movement of molecules.

In turbulent flow, the momentum exchange between different layers is

caused by the macroscopic movement of fluid chunks. We can expect a

larger viscous-shear in turbulent flow than in laminar flow, due to which

the velocity profile is flat in a turbulent boundary layer.

Flow in a tube

The critical Re

The range of Re for transition is

5.3. INVISCOUS FLOW

The Bernoulli equation for flow Relation applicable to

along a stream result reversible adiabatic flow:

In differential form

The energy equation for

compressible fluid

i is the enthalpy defined by i =

e + pv

Equation of state of fluid

5.4. LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT

PLATE

Assumptions:

1. Incompressible and steady flow

2. No pressure variation in the direction

perpendicular to the plate

3. Constant viscosity

4. Viscous-shear in y direction is negligible.

Two methods to study motion of fluid.

5. Newtons law of motion

Which applies to a system of constant mass

2. Force balance

fixed in space

Mass continuity equation Derivation of momentum equation

Mass in the left face is mass in the left face is

Mass out of the left face is Momentum flux in the left face is

Mass in the bottom face is Momentum flux out of the left face

Mass out of the top face is is

Momentum flux in the x direction

entering the bottom face

Mass continuity equation

Mass out of the top face is

Momentum flux in the x direction

leaving the top face

Balancing force and momentum

Pressure forces on the left and in x direction gives

right faces are pdy and

Net pressure force in the

direction of motion is

Final result

Viscous-shear force on the

bottom face is Integral flow through plane 1

Momentum flow through plane 1

face is

Net viscous-shear force =

Carried momentum in x direction The shear force at walls is

by the flow through plane A-A Setting the force on the element

The momentum flow out of the equal to the net increase in

control volume is momentum gives

By the use of

or

pH

The pressure force on plane 2

5.5. ENERGY EQUATION OF THE

BOUNDARY LAYER

Assumptions:

1. Incompressible steady flow

2. Constant viscosity, thermal conductivity,

and specific heat

3. Negligible heat conduction on the

direction of flow

Energy convected in left face

+ energy convected in bottom face

+ energy conducted in bottom face

+ net viscous work done on element

= energy convected out right face

+ energy out top face

+ heat conducted out top face

The viscous shear force over dx And dividing by

The distance through which the

force moves in the respect to the Order of magnitude analysis

control volume dxdy is

to the element is

Energy balance corresponding to

the quantities is

Using

5.6. THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER

1. Thermal boundary layer Cubic polynomial

boundary layer

Energy convected + viscous work

Within element + heat transfer at

wall = energy convected out

3. Temperature distribution in the The energy convected through

thermal boundary layer planel 1 is

boundary condition

The energy convected out through

plane 2 is

The mass flow through pale A-A Assume thermal boundary layer

The energy carried with is is thinner than the hydrodynamic

boundary layer making

The net viscous work done within

substitution

element is

Combining the above energy

quantities gives

5. Thermal boundary layer

thickness

Average heat transfer

coefficient and Nusselt number

or

Where

Film temperature

6. Prandtl number

Constant Heat Flux

7. Nusselt number

Finally,

entire lenght

or

Other relation

5.7. THE RELATION BETWEEN FLUID

FRICTION AND HEAT TRANSFER

The exact solution is

The shear stress is Equation may be rewritten in the

Using the velocity distribution following from:

given by equation, we have By introduction of Stanton number

Making use of the relation for the

boundary-layer thickness gives

Combining equations:

5.8. TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER HEAT

TRANSFER

Structure of turbulent flow:

1. Laminar sublayer

2. Buffer layer

3. Turbulent

The physical mechanism of heat transfer

in turbulent flow is similar to that in

laminar flow.

Difficulty: there is no completely adequate

theory to predict turbulent-flow behavior

Velocity fluctuation in a turbulent flow

Shears stress giving rise to Prandtals hypothesis

velocity fluctuations in turbulent In the near-wall region

flow

Eddy viscosity and mixing length

Universal velocity profile

Nondimensional coordinates

Mean free path and Prandtl

mixing length

Prandtl postulated

5.9. TURBULENT the second case: The boundary layer follows a

BOUNDARY LAYER laminar growth pattern up to and

Integrating equations

Combining the various relations above gives

for

from the leading edge of the plate:

5.10. HEAT TRANSFER IN LAMINAR TUBE

FLOW

1. Velocity distribution 2. Energy balance analysis

and temperature distribution

and

net heat conducted in

Which my be rewritten

• Assume Bulk temperature

1. Definition of convection heat

transfer coefficient in tube

flow

2. Bulk temperature

3. Wall temperature

coefficient

Assume

Integrating

Shear stress at wall is

friction factor

Assume: so

• Subtituting :

flow

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