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CHAPTER 5

PRINCIPLES OF CONVECTION
5.1. INTRODUCTION
5.2. VISCOUS FLOW
Shear stress:

µ - Dynamic viscosity
Boundary layer: the region of flow that develops from the
leading edge of a plate in which the effects of the viscosity are
observed.
The outside boundary of a boundary layer is usually chosen as
the point where the velocity of flow is 99% of the free steam
value.
Three regimes of boundary-layer flow
1. Laminar flow
2. Transitional flow
3. Turbulent flow
The transition occurs when:

Renolds number

For most analytical purposes, the critical number for the transition is usually taken as 5 x
105
The critical Re for transition is strongly dependent on the surface
roughness condition and the “turbulent level” of the free-stream.
The normal range for the beginning of transition is between:
5 x 105 to 106
For very large disturbance present in the flow, transition may begin
with Renolds number as low as
105
For flows that are very free from fluctuation, the transition may not
start until

The transition is completed at Re twice the value at the transition


begin.
The relative shape for the velocity profiles in laminar and turbulent flow
The laminar profile is approximately parabolic
Structure of turbulent profile:
Laminar sublayer that is nearly linear.
Turbulent portion which is relatively flat in
comparison with the laminar profile.
The physical mechanism of viscosity in fluids
In laminar flow, the viscosity is attribute to the exchange of momentum
between different laminas by the movement of molecules.
In turbulent flow, the momentum exchange between different layers is
caused by the macroscopic movement of fluid chunks. We can expect a
larger viscous-shear in turbulent flow than in laminar flow, due to which
the velocity profile is flat in a turbulent boundary layer.
Flow in a tube
The critical Re
The range of Re for transition is

Continuity relation in a tube is

Re based on mass velocity is defined as


5.3. INVISCOUS FLOW
The Bernoulli equation for flow Relation applicable to
along a stream result reversible adiabatic flow:
In differential form
The energy equation for
compressible fluid
i is the enthalpy defined by i =
e + pv
Equation of state of fluid
5.4. LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT
PLATE
Assumptions:
1. Incompressible and steady flow
2. No pressure variation in the direction
perpendicular to the plate
3. Constant viscosity
4. Viscous-shear in y direction is negligible.
Two methods to study motion of fluid.
5. Newtons law of motion
Which applies to a system of constant mass

2. Force balance

Which applies to a elemental control volume


fixed in space
Mass continuity equation Derivation of momentum equation
Mass in the left face is mass in the left face is
Mass out of the left face is Momentum flux in the left face is
Mass in the bottom face is Momentum flux out of the left face
Mass out of the top face is is

Mass balance on the elements is Mass in the bottom face is


Momentum flux in the x direction
entering the bottom face
Mass continuity equation
Mass out of the top face is
Momentum flux in the x direction
leaving the top face
Balancing force and momentum
Pressure forces on the left and in x direction gives
right faces are pdy and
Net pressure force in the
direction of motion is
Final result
Viscous-shear force on the
bottom face is Integral flow through plane 1
Momentum flow through plane 1

Viscous-shear force on the top Momentum flow through plane 2


face is

Mass flow through plane 2


Net viscous-shear force =
Carried momentum in x direction The shear force at walls is
by the flow through plane A-A Setting the force on the element
The momentum flow out of the equal to the net increase in
control volume is momentum gives
By the use of
or

The pressure force on plane 1 is


pH
The pressure force on plane 2
5.5. ENERGY EQUATION OF THE
BOUNDARY LAYER
Assumptions:
1. Incompressible steady flow
2. Constant viscosity, thermal conductivity,
and specific heat
3. Negligible heat conduction on the
direction of flow
Energy convected in left face
+ energy convected in bottom face
+ energy conducted in bottom face
+ net viscous work done on element
= energy convected out right face
+ energy out top face
+ heat conducted out top face
The viscous shear force over dx And dividing by
The distance through which the
force moves in the respect to the Order of magnitude analysis
control volume dxdy is

The net viscous energy delivered


to the element is
Energy balance corresponding to
the quantities is

Using
5.6. THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER
1. Thermal boundary layer Cubic polynomial

2. Definition of h 4. Integral energy equation of the


boundary layer
Energy convected + viscous work
Within element + heat transfer at
wall = energy convected out
3. Temperature distribution in the The energy convected through
thermal boundary layer planel 1 is

boundary condition
The energy convected out through
plane 2 is
The mass flow through pale A-A Assume thermal boundary layer
The energy carried with is is thinner than the hydrodynamic
boundary layer making
The net viscous work done within
substitution
element is

Heat transfer at wall


Combining the above energy
quantities gives
5. Thermal boundary layer
thickness
Average heat transfer
coefficient and Nusselt number
or

Where
Film temperature
6. Prandtl number
Constant Heat Flux
7. Nusselt number

Finally,

For the plate heated over its


entire lenght
or

Other relation
5.7. THE RELATION BETWEEN FLUID
FRICTION AND HEAT TRANSFER
The exact solution is
The shear stress is Equation may be rewritten in the
Using the velocity distribution following from:
given by equation, we have By introduction of Stanton number
Making use of the relation for the
boundary-layer thickness gives
Combining equations:
5.8. TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER HEAT
TRANSFER
Structure of turbulent flow:
1. Laminar sublayer
2. Buffer layer
3. Turbulent
The physical mechanism of heat transfer
in turbulent flow is similar to that in
laminar flow.
Difficulty: there is no completely adequate
theory to predict turbulent-flow behavior
Velocity fluctuation in a turbulent flow
Shears stress giving rise to Prandtals hypothesis
velocity fluctuations in turbulent In the near-wall region
flow
Eddy viscosity and mixing length
Universal velocity profile
Nondimensional coordinates
Mean free path and Prandtl
mixing length

Prandtl postulated
5.9. TURBULENT the second case: The boundary layer follows a
BOUNDARY LAYER laminar growth pattern up to and

THICKNESS a turbulent growth thereafter

1. Velocity profile in turbulent boundary layer

2. Shear stress at wall

Integrating equations

3. Integrating the integral momentum equation


Combining the various relations above gives

Integrating and clearing terms gives


for

The first case: The boundary layer is fully turbulent


from the leading edge of the plate:
5.10. HEAT TRANSFER IN LAMINAR TUBE
FLOW
1. Velocity distribution 2. Energy balance analysis
and temperature distribution

and

Net energy convected out =


net heat conducted in
Which my be rewritten
• Assume Bulk temperature
1. Definition of convection heat
transfer coefficient in tube
flow

2. Bulk temperature

3. Wall temperature

4. Convection heat transfer


coefficient
Assume

Integrating

5.11. Turbulent flow in a tube

Heat transfer at wall is

For laminar flow


Shear stress at wall is

For turbulent flow The pressure drop can be expressed in terms of


friction factor

Assume: so
• Subtituting :

• Reynold analogy for tube


flow