Sunteți pe pagina 1din 128

TRAFFIC PROTECTION IN TRANSPORT NETWORKS

Alberto Bellato
CTO
Technology and architecture
Optical Networks Division
ALCATEL
Vimercate
Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 2


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 3


Transport network concept

Scope of a Transport Network is to


> Transparently carry a client signal over several nodes
in the network
> Provide means for a service monitoring in order to
guarantee an agreed quality of service
> Simplify maintenance operations

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 4


Transport network concept

En
use d
rs
En
use d
rs

Intermedia
En rs
us

te nodes
d
e

End
s
En user
use d
rs

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 5


Transport network concept

En

us
ers
d
> Client signals to be carried are
En
use d
rs
mapped over hierarchical transport
entities in order to achieve an
optimized network management
> I.e. no need to manage the client
signal at intermediate nodes, but
bundles of signals with larger
Intermed
En

iate
d
us
ers

nodes

granularity
End
En us ers
u se d
rs

OH client

OH client OH client OH client


OH client OH OH OH
OH

OH client

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 6


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 7


Need for traffic protection

> A transport network should provide a mean for a


secure traffic delivery between different sites
> Need to provide a mechanism able to minimize as much
as possible the impact of events that may cause the
interruption of the service
• Note that this is different from network security, where
there is the need to protect data from external attacks

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 8


Failures in the Network
FIBRE DAMAGE
• DIG UP
• FIRE
• HUMIDITY
• MICRO-BENDING
• RODENT
• VIBRATION

CONNECTOR NODE FAILURE


FAILURE
OPTICAL • CONNECTOR DEFECT • EQUIPMENT FAILURE
LINK N.E. SITE
• TEMPERATURE • POWER SUPPLY FAILURE
FAILURE CYCLING FAILURE
• OVERLOADS / SOFTWARE /
• DIRT
HARDWARE FAILURE PROCEDURAL
• OPTO-ELECTRONIC
DEVICE FAILURE
• POWER SUPPLY
FAILURE
SPLICE FAILURE
• VIBRATION
• CRAFT DEFECTS

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 9


Why Traffic Protection in Transport Network?

⇒ IMPORTANT SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.

⇒ SOURCE OF PROFITABILITY.

⇒ GAINS CUSTOMER LOYALTY.

⇒ REDUCES NETWORK MAINTENANCE COSTS.

⇒ MINIMISES BAD PRESS.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 10


User’s Dependency in Telecoms

ESTIMATED BUSINESS LOSS DUE TO TELECOMS SERVICE


FAILURE, AN FCA (US) REPORT:

$107000 PER MINUTE IN A BROKERAGE INSTITUTION


$47000 PER MINUTE IN A CREDIT CARD/SALES AUTHORISATION
$2500 PER MINUTE IN A PAY PER VIEW
$1800 PER MINUTE IN A HOME SHOPPING (TV)
$1500 PER MINUTE IN A CATALOG SALES
$1500 PER MINUTE IN AN AIRLINE RESERVATION BOOTH

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 11


Price Sensitivity in Public Telecom Operators SLAs

EXAMPLES OF NATIONAL OPERATORS SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTS

GUARANTEED MAX GUARANTEED MAX FINANCIAL PRICE PREMIUM


UAT MTTR PENALTY

EU Premium: 1 – 2 4 – 8 Hours 10% of a month 15 – 50%


Hour/Year 2 months

EU Standard: 4 – 13 4 – 8 Hours 1 month - 1year 10 – 15%


Hour/ Year revenue fees

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 12


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 13


Network Topologies

Ring Based Eventual


closure

Mesh Based Linear

Ring Based
Linear
Eventual
closure
Medium High density Low density
density of population of population
of population

POPULATION IS CONSIDERED AS
AMOUNT OF NETWORK
ELEMENTS TO BE CONNECTED

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 14


PROTECTION
Protection is a method for the traffic recovery, considered
as ‘high priority‘ traffic (‘Normal traffic‘) , usually associated
to a fast process where the Network Elements (NE)
autonomously decide when to act (selfhealing).

⇒ The protection algorithm is implemented and handled by


NE‘s

⇒ The protection application makes use of preassigned


capacity between nodes (protection transport entity)

⇒ The alternative path used for traffic recovery, has a


either a predefined routing or it is allocated through
predefined links

⇒ ‘Protection‘ transport entity can carry ‘low priority‘


A.traffic (Extra
Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 15 Traffic) when not in switching condition
Protection application

H
G
I

F L
A

Switch time  50 ÷ 300 ms


E
D B
C

• Working circuit path: GFHIL


• Failure on section: HI
• Predefined alternative path (‘protection‘ path) on GEABL
• Protection transport entity can be used for the transport of ‘low riority‘ traffic
(depending on the specific protection scheme)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 16


RESTORATION

Restoration is a method for the traffic recovery, usually


associated to a slower process, where the switching
decision is taken by a Network Management System
(NMS) which can be either centralized or distributed
through the network.

⇒ The restoration application makes use of any capacity


available between nodes, depending on failure
scenario and on traffic matrix

⇒ The restored path doesn't have a ‘unique‘ predefined


routing.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 17


Restoration Application

H
G
I

F L
A
Switch time
 500 ms ÷ up to 10 s
E
D B
C

• Working circuit path: GFHIL


• Failure on section: HI
• NMS decides optimum routing (e.g. GFABIL) among possible alternative
paths (e.g. GEDCL or GFAIL or GFEABL)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 18


Network Topologies

N
IO
ECT IO
N
O
T
ECT
P Ring Based
R
O
T Eventual
PR
closure

Mesh Based Linear


N
O
I ON N
ECT TI
TIO
T C A
ORing Based TE R ION
PR O
ST
O
CT
PR E E
T Linear
R O
PR Eventual
closure
Medium High density Low density
density of population of population
of population

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 19


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
• Definitions
• Switching Criteria
• Protection Architectures
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 20


Scope of the Protection - Trail

▼ A Trail is defined as the transfer of information validated by


the overhead information between two ‘Access Points’ at
whichever layer, (after terminating the overhead associated
to that layer)

AP TCP TCP AP AP TCP TCP AP

Sub-network Sub-network

Layer ‘a’ Trail Layer ‘a’ Trail

Layer ‘b’ Trail

Trail Protection

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 21


Transport network concept

En
use d
rs
En
Intermedia use d
te nodes rs

l
‘b’ Trai La
er ye
Lay r‘
b’
T ra
En rs
us

il
ai l
‘a’ Tr
d
e

ye r
La

End
s
En user
use d
rs

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 22


Scope of the Protection - SNC

▼ A Sub-Network Connection (SNC) is defined as the


transfer of information between ‘Connection Points’ or
‘Termination Connection Points’, (before terminating the
overhead associated to that layer).

AP TCP CP CP TCP AP

Sub-network Sub-network Sub-network

‘Intermediate’ Path portion

‘End-to-End’ Path

SNC Protection

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 23


Transport network concept

En
use d
rs
En
Intermedia use d
te nodes rs

ion
port
En rs
us

pat h
iate
d
e

t er med
In

End
s
En user
use d
rs

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 24


Architecture Mode

Redundant: Normal Traffic End 1 ‘Working’ End 2


is ‘bridged’ permanently (wk)
on ‘working/protection’ Normal
resources → Extra Traffic Traffic
is not supported ‘Protection’
(pr)

‘+’ (1 wk + 1 pr)
Shared: Normal Traffic is
usually connected to
‘working’ resource -
‘bridge’ occurs only when
protection is required → End 1 ‘Working’ End 2
(wk) Normal
Extra Traffic may be Traffic
carried by ‘protection’
resource (when no ‘Protection’ Extra
requested for protection) (pr) Traffic

‘:’ (N≥ 1 wk : M≥ pr)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 25


Switching Mode

End 1 ‘Working’ End 2


(wk)

‘Protection’ Each end switches


(pr) independently on the
base of ‘switching
‘Unidirectional’ (or single ended ) criteria’ locally detected

‘Working’
End 1 (wk)
End 2

Both ends, on the base of


‘Protection’ ‘switching criteria’ detected,
(pr) perform ‘bridge & switch’
triggered by protocol exchange
APS signaling over ‘protection’
message (Automatic Protection
‘Bidirectional’ (or dual ended) Switching signalling) over
‘protection’ transport entity

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 26


Switching Mode and Path Routing
Unidirectional ⇒ ‘Diverse’ routing

End 1 End 2

The traffic is routed on


different equipment and
Bidirectional ⇒ ‘Uniform’ routing links

End 1 End 2

The traffic shares the same


equipment and links

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 27


Switching Mode – Possible Advantages

⇒ Advantages of ‘unidirectional’ protection switching:


 simplicity of implementation: no protocol required
 but double bandwidth used
 best ‘switch time’ performance, than ‘bidirectional’ protection switching,
due to the lack of protocol message exchange
 greater chance of restoring traffic, than ‘bidirectional’ protection
switching,
 but ‘diverse’ routing

⇒ Advantages of ‘bidirectional’ protection switching:


 greater efficiency of bandwidth usage, than ‘unidirectional’ protection
switching, due to the ability of supporting extra-traffic on ‘protection path
when no switching is required
 chance to get easier maintenance operations due to ‘uniform’ routing:
traffic travels in both directions either along the ‘working’ path or the ‘protection’
path, then, one path is ‘active’
the alternative path is ‘standby’ (reduced number of sites possibly interested)

 equal delay for both directions of transmission, significant feature with


transoceanic links and via-satellite links
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 28
Operation Mode
⇒ In revertive operation mode, the traffic signal always returns to the working
transport entity, when it has recovered from the defect or the external request
is cleared (revertive operation is handled either ‘unidirectionally’ or
‘bidirectionally’ consistently to the ‘switching mode’ of the protection
scheme)
Revertive ‘unidir’ Revertive ‘bidir’
End 1 ‘Working’ End 2 End 1 ‘Working’ End 2

‘Protection’ ‘Protection’
‘bidirectional’ revert switch
triggered by APS signaling

⇒ In non‑revertive operation mode, the traffic signal does not return to the
working transport entity, once the defect or the external request affecting
working resource has been removed.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 29


Operation Mode Application
⇒ The ‘not revertive’ operation mode is applicable only where a working
transport resource has a dedicated protection resource (e.g. protection scheme
with ‘unidirectional’ switching mode).
 Advantage: glitch on traffic, due to ‘revert switch’, avoided, then traffic
performance increased.

⇒ The ‘revertive’ operation mode is applicable both in case of protection


resource dedicated to a working resource and in case of protection resource
shared among different working transport entities. The ‘revertive’ mode is
appropriate when:
 the protection resource capacity is required to restore other traffic signal,
due to more urgent need (e.g., protection scheme with ‘shared’ protection transport
entity)
 the protection resource may be subject to frequent re-arrangement (e.g.
where a network has limited capacity and protection routes are frequently re-
arranged to maximize network efficiency when changes occur in the network)
 the protection resource is of significantly lower performance than the
working resource (e.g. where the protection transport entity has a worse error
performance or longer delay than the working transport entity)
 an operator needs to know which transport entities are carrying normal
traffic in order to simplify the management of the network

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 30


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
• Definitions
• Switching Criteria
• Protection Architectures
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 31


Protection Algorithm Controller
SWITCHING CRITERIA

EXTERNALLY AUTOMATICALLY PROTOCOL


INITIATED INITIATED MESSAGES
COMMANDS COMMANDS (in ‘dual-ended’ sw.)

INPUTS Hardware (fpga


Parameters able to usually) or
produce a state Software tasks
machine evolution
PROTECTION ALGORITHM resident into the
Network Element
CONTROLLER able to process
input parameters
and providing
OUTPUTS
Actions produced
output actions
by the state according to the
MATRIX UPDATED specific protection
machine evolution
RE-CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL
algorithm
(e.g. Bridge/Switch) MESSAGES
(in ‘dual-ended’ sw.)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 32


Switching Initiation Criteria…
…are, those conditions able to START (initiate), at a Network
Element, a protection activity (i.e. a state machine evolution).
Specifically:

AUTOMATICALLY Fault conditions affecting the


INITIATED traffic to be protected at the
COMMANDS specific layer

IN DETAILS…
Available commands allowing the
EXTERNALLY operator to control protection
INITIATED
algorithm, by forcing, pre-empting
COMMANDS
or testing the switching status

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 33


…Automatically Initiated Commands…

Signal Fail
All the defect conditions producing the ‘unavailability’ of the
traffic to be protected at the interested layer
Signal Degrade
Error condition affecting traffic to be protected at the interested
layer, over a specific threshold set by operator (not necessarily
producing a ‘unavailability’)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 34


…Externally Initiated Commands…
Configuration modification and maintenance
Lockout of Protection makes the protection transport entity ‘unavailable’ for (all)
the Normal Traffic(s) to be protected
Forced Switch (#n) forces Normal Traffic (#n) to be routed over the protection
transport entity
Manual Switch (#n) routes Normal Traffic (#n) over the protection transport entity
unless a fault condition (SF, SD) requires another signal to be routed over this
transport entity

Control Commands
Lockout of Working (#n) disables the access to the protection transport entity for
the (specific) Normal Traffic
Clear Lockout of Working (#n) clears the Lockout of Working (#n) command

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 35


…Externally Initiated Commands…

In ‘bidirectional’ switching mode systems, testing of APS protocol


Exercise (#n) emulates a switch request (for Normal Traffic #n) without
performing any actual switch action, unless the protection transport entity is being
used

Clearing previous external command (not addressable by other specific


clear command)
Clear clears all the switch commands

Freeze the protection process (commands under standardization)


Freeze the current state of the ‘Protection Algorithm Controller’ (mainly thought for
checking the APS protocol exchange for APS Controller)
Clear Freeze clears the Freeze command and allows the ‘Protection Algorithm
Controller to evolve on the base of current inputs state
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 36
Protection Switching Performance

Switch Initiation
Hold-Off Time Switch Completion
Time Time interval after the Time
(or Detection Time) detection of a SF or SD The interval from the
Time interval between the and its confirmation as a decision to switch
occurrence of a network condition requiring the (including time needed to
impairment and the protection switching achieve this decision) to the
detection of a signal fail procedure completion of the bridge
(SF) or signal degrade (SD) and switch operation at a
triggered by that network switching node initiating the
impairment ‘bridge request’

Time

Network Impairment SF – SD trigger Start of protection Protected traffic


Switching operations restored
(SF-SD confirmation)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 37


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
• Definitions
• Switching Criteria
• Protection Architectures
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 38


Protection Architecture ⇒ Linear
Linear protection architecture is applicable to both linear and ring
network topology: only ‘End’ nodes performs a protection activity,
N.T. due to the resident ‘Protection Algorithm Controller’
N.T.
NE 1 P.A.C.
‘Intermediate’ node performing
traffic cross-connection and alarm P.A.C.
(defects / errors) propagation
NE 3 NE 1 (Wk)
(Pr) (Wk)
NE 3 NE 4
NE 4
(Pr)
NE 2

NE 2 P.A.C. P.A.C.

N.T. N.T.
Linear’ network topology ‘Ring’ network topology

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 39


Protection Architecture ⇒ Linear
Linear protection architecture is also applicable to meshed network topology,
whenever two separated paths (working and protection) can be identified through
the network: again, only ‘End’ nodes performs a protection activity, due to the
resident ‘Protection Algorithm Controller’
N.T.

(Wk)
‘Intermediate’ nodes
performing traffic cross- (Pr)
connection and alarm
(defects / errors) propagation

N.T.
‘Meshed’ network topology

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 40


Protection Architecture ⇒ SPRing
SPRing (Shared Protected Ring) protection architecture is applicable only to
ring network topology: every node of the ring performs a protection activity
due to the resident ‘Protection Algorithm Controller’ (APS controller)

N.T. ‘Working’ and Protection’ N.T.


(Pr) resources carried into the
same transmission mean
P.A.C. (Wk) (e.g. fiber / λ ) P.A.C.

NE 1 NE 1

P.A.C. NE 3 NE 4 P.A.C. P.A.C. NE 3 NE 4 P.A.C.

NE 2 NE 2
P.A.C.
P.A.C.
‘Working’ and ‘Protection’
resources carried into
dedicated transmission
N.T. N.T.
means (e.g. fiber / λ )
F’ (fiber) ring’ network topology ‘4F’ (fiber) ring’ network topolog

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 41


Protection Architecture ⇒ SPRing

N.T.

(Wk)

(Pr)
SPRing protection architecture is also
applicable to meshed network topology,
whenever a ‘closed’ connection of NE’s
(i.e. a ring) is identified through the
network: again, every node of the ring,
performs a protection activity, due to the
resident ‘Protection Algorithm Controller’

N.T.

‘Meshed’ network topology

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 42


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
• Linear
• Ring
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 43


Basic Linear Protection Schemes
Protection Network Protection Switching
Architecture Topology Algorithm Operation

LINEAR Linear / Ring / 1 + 1 unidir / bidir


Meshed

Linear / Ring / 1 : N unidir / bidir


Meshed

Linear / Ring / M : N bidir


Meshed

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 44


Linear ‘1 + 1’ protection scheme
Linear / ring protected network

Permanent ‘bridge’ Working (Wk) Selector

Normal Traffic Normal Traffic


(High Priority) (High Priority)

Cross-connection matrix
NE 1 Protection (Pr) NE 2

1+1 scheme
⇒ 1 ‘protection’ resources dedicated to 1 ‘working’ resource
⇒ only Normal Traffic connected (Extra Traffic on ‘protection’ res. NOT
supported) through permanent ‘bridge’ on the two communication
resources (wk/pr)
⇒ traffic data ‘switched’ (selected) on the base of switching criteria detected

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 45


1 + 1 ‘unidir’ algorithm - I
NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk)
Protection activity

NE 1 NE 2
Switching criterion
(Pr)
declaration

TAL
No
Action Switch

Unidirectional Switch
completed
[Time] [Time]
NE 1 Switch NE 2
N.T. (Wk) TAL – algorithm evolution time

In ‘non-revertive’ systems, new


switch status is kept also after
failure/degrade/command removal
(Pr)
from ‘working’ resource

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 46


1 + 1 ‘unidir’ algorithm - II
Failure/Degrade condition removed Switch present until
from ‘working’ resource – WTR timer starts WTR timer expiring
NE 1 NE 2 Protection activity
N.T. (Wk)

NE 1 NE 2
Failure /
Degrade Switch
removal
(Pr)
No
W.T.R. (Switch)
Action Revert

Revert switch on main


performed
[Time] [Time]
NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) W.T.R.– timer expiring

At WTR timer expired, starting


connectivity re-established
(revert switch on ‘working’ main
(Pr) resource)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 47


1 + 1 ‘bidir’ algorithm - I
Protection activity
NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) NE 1 NE 2
Switching criterion
declaration

TAL
(Pr) (Bridge)
Request Type,
Channel ‘identifier’
Protocol message along ‘protection’ resource TAL
(‘No Request’ code)
(Bridge)
Reverse Request,
Channel ‘bridged
TAL
Switch
Request Type,
Channel ‘bridged’
NE 1 Switch NE 2 TAL
N.T. (Wk) Switch
Bidirectional Switch
completed
[Time] [Time]

TAL – algorithm evolution time


(Pr)
Switch In ‘non-revertive’ systems, new switch status is
kept also after failure/degrade/command removal
from ‘working’ resource, ‘Do Not Revert’ code is
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 48 signaled
1 + 1 ‘bidir’ algorithm - II
Failure/Degrade condition removed from Protection activity
‘working’ resource – WTR timer starts at ‘tail’ end
NE 1 NE 2
NE 1 NE 2 Head end Failure / Tail end
N.T. (Wk) Degrade
removal
Wait To Restore,
(Bridge) Channel ‘bridged’
Switch
W.T.R.
Reverse Request,
(Bridge)
Channel ‘bridged
(Pr) Switch

No Request, Revert
Switch present at both ends
Channel ‘bridged’
until WTR timer expiring Revert
No Request

NE 1 NE 2 Revert switch on main


‘bidirectionally’perfor
N.T. (Wk)
med
[Time] [Time]

W.T.R.– timer expiring

(Pr)
As soon as WTR timer is expired, starting connectivity
is re-established on both ends through, ‘No Request’
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 49 code.
Linear ‘1 : N’ protection scheme

Normal Traffic #1 Normal Traffic #1


(High Priority) (High Priority)
Working (Wk)
Normal Traffic #n Normal Traffic #n
(High Priority) Protection (Pr) (High Priority)

Extra Traffic Extra Traffic


(Low Priority) (Low Priority)
NE 1 NE 2
1:N scheme
⇒ 1 ‘protection’ resource shared among N (≥ 1) ‘working’ resources
⇒ implicitly ‘bidirectional’; protocol exchange along the ‘protection’ resource
⇒ the amount of ‘working’ resources (N) handled, and, consequently, of the Normal Traffics
protected, depends on the characteristics of protocol supported (nr of bits/bytes
dedicated into signaling)
⇒ both ‘bridge’ and ‘switch’ connections performed on the base of protocol algorithm
activation
⇒ either Null Signal (no meaningful traffic connected) or Extra Traffic (low priority traffic) can
be connected to ‘protection’ resource when protection activity is not required
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 50
1 : N ‘bidir’ algorithm - I
N. T. #1
Working (Wk)

‘No Request’ code on N. T. #n


protocol and E.T./ Null Protection (Pr)
Signal connected on ‘pr’)
E. T.

Bridge Switch

N. T. #1 recovered
Working (Wk)
N. T. #n not interested
by protection activity Protection (Pr)

E. T. squelched

‘Squelching’ ‘Squelching’
(AIS injection) (AIS injection)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 51


1 : N ‘bidir’ algorithm - II
Br&Sw and E.T. squelching Failure/Degrade condition removed from ‘working’ resource
present at both ends until WTR timer starts at ‘tail’ end
WTR timer expiring

N. T. #1 recovered
Working (Wk)
N. T. #n not interested
by protection activity Protection (Pr)

E. T. squelched

N. T. #1
As soon as WTR timer is Working (Wk)
expired, starting
connectivity is re- N. T. #n
established on both Protection (Pr)
ends through protocol
E. T.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 52


1 : N ‘bidir’ algorithm - III
tection activity for single Degrade/Failure/Command

NE 1 NE 2 NE 1 NE 2
Head end Failure / Tail end
Switching criterion
Degrade
declaration removal
Wait To Restore,
TAL Bridge Channel ‘bridged’
E.T. sq. &
W.T.R.
Request Type, Reverse Request, Bridge
Channel Identifier Switch
Channel ‘bridged &
TAL Switch
E.T. sq. Release
Reverse Request, No Request,
Bridge Channel ‘bridged Switch
E.T/N.S. Ch. Ident.
TAL Bridge Release Switch No Request
& Bridge E.T. / N.S. E.T./N.S. Ch. bridge
Request Type, Switch
Channel ‘bridged’ on protection No Request Bridge & Switch
TAL Switch
E.T./N.S. Ch. bridge E.T. / N.S.
Switch on protection
Bidirectional Switch E.T. / N.S. Revert on main
completed on protection ‘bidirectionally’perfor
[Time] [Time] [Time] med [Time]

TAL – algorithm evolution time W.T.R.– timer expiring

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 53


Linear APS channel content
ol Parameters

st Type  i.e. the request (failure / degrade / command) or state (‘No Request’ /
‘Do Not Revert’ / WTR) to be signalled / acknowledged by each end of
the protection group

sting Channel Identifier  i.e. the identifier of ‘working’ / ‘protection’ resource


for which the request type is issued

d Channel Identifier (bridge status)  i.e. the identifier of ‘working’ / ‘protection’ resource
for which the ‘bridge’ / ’switch’ matrix configuration
is performed

ecture mode  i.e. the ‘redundant’ configuration, “+”, or the ‘shared’ configuration, “:”

hing mode  i.e. the locally provisioned ‘unidirectional’ / ‘bidirectional’ switching


signalled to remote end for possible ‘provisioning mismatch’ detection
(supported in OTH, optional in SDH)

tion mode  i.e. the locally ‘revertive’ / ‘not revertive’ operation mode signalled
remote end for possible ‘provisioning mismatch’ detection
(supported in OTH)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 54


Squelching in linear schemes

Extra Traffic squelching


This type of squelching is needed in every type of scheme, linear or ring,
supporting traffic
configuration on the ‘Low Priority’ channels (Protection channels).
This traffic, called ‘extra’ with respect that one configured on ‘High Priority’
channels called
‘normal’, is pre-empted when the ‘Low Priority’ channels are required for
protecting ‘normal’
traffic.
The access to the ‘Low Priority’ by Normal Traffic might lead to traffic
misconnected, if no
specific mechanism was implemented: Extra Traffic squelching performed before
any matrix
re-configuration (Bridge/Switch) avoids this potential problem.

⇒ In linear 1:N schemes, Extra Traffic squelching implies that ‘end’ nodes forces
a defined alarm signal (AIS) towards the Extra Traffic user.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 55


Squelching in linear schemes - I
NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) N.T.

E.T. E.T.
(Pr)

Request Type,
Channel Identifier (No E.T. sq.)

NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) N.T.

‘Request Type’ from NE2 processed -


E.T. E.T. ‘Bridge’ performed at NE1 (but ‘Switch’ not
performed yet at NE2) 
(Pr) transient misconnection between N.T. and
E.T. in the direction NE1 > NE2
Request Type,
(No E.T. sq.) Channel Identifier
Bridge

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 56


Squelching in linear schemes - II
NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) N.T.
‘Reverse Request’ from NE1 processed -
‘Switch’ performed at NE2 
initial misconnection removed;
E.T. E.T. ‘Bridge’ performed at NE2 (and ‘Switch’ not
performed yet at NE1) 
(Pr) new transient misconnection between N.T.
and E.T. in the direction NE2 > NE1
Reverse Request,
Channel ‘bridged Bridge & Switch

NE 1 NE 2
N.T. (Wk) N.T.

‘Request Type’ from NE2 processed -


E.T. E.T. ‘Switch’ performed at NE1 
new misconnection removed;
(Pr)

Request Type,
Switch Channel ‘bridged’

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 57


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
• Linear
• Ring
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 58


Basic SPRing Protection Schemes
Protection Network Protection Switching
Architecture Topology Algorithm Operation

SPRING Ring / Meshed 1:1 bidir


2F/4F ‘classic’
Ring / Meshed 1:1 bidir
4F ‘transoceanic’

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 59


2F/4F SPRing protection scheme
2F/4F scheme
⇒ In ‘2F’ topology, same transmission mean
Working (Wk) N.T. E.T. Protection
(Pr) (fiber / λ ) carries both working and protection
resources. If N is total number of resources
(channels) available as ring line capacity, then:
- ‘working’ resources are 1÷ N/2
- ‘protection’ resources are N/2 + 1 ÷ N
W NE 1 E
⇒ In ‘4F’ topology, dedicated transmission mean
E W (fiber / λ ) carries either working or protection
resources. If N is total number of resources
E.T. (channels) available as ring line capacity, then:
NE 4 NE 2
E.T. - ‘working’ resources are N
W E - ‘protection’ resources are N
NE 3 ⇒ Each side of a node interfacing the ring is
E W
conventionally named ‘West’/’East
⇒ Each node of the ring is involved in protection
activity (protocol handling, matrix configuration).
Protocol message exchange always occurs
between adjacent nodes along ‘protection’ resources
N.T. E.T. ⇒ In Idle state (no protection required through the
ring), N.T. is on working resources, E.T. may be
‘IDLE’ state ‘Working’ resources
configured on protection resources. Protocol
‘Protection’ resources signaling carries ‘No request’ code from each node
to the adjacent one

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 60


2F ‘classic’ SPRing – Ring Switch
N.T. recovered E.T. squelched ‘Bridge’ to ‘x+N/2’ Protection
PATH
resources
‘SHORT’

‘Switch’ to ‘x+N/2’ Protection


NE 1
resources

‘Working’ resource Bridge


x E.T.
NE 4 NE 2 squelched

Switch
P.T.
‘Protection’ resources
NE 3 ‘N/2+1 ÷ N’
Pass-through

PATH
‘LONG’

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched


‘Squelching’
‘Working’ resources (AIS injection)
‘Protection’ resources

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 61


2F ‘classic’ SPRing – Ring Switch
⇒ ‘Ring Switch’ recovers Normal Traffic through ‘protection’ resources on the ‘LONG’
path, when both ‘working’ and ‘protection’ resources of a span are failure/degrade affected
or when a ring command (Force / Manual)is applied.
- In 2F topology this scenario occurs anytime a failure/degrade affects at least one out of
two transmission means of a span, or when a ring command is applied on that span.
⇒ During ‘ring switch’ all the Extra Traffics configured through the ring are ‘squelched’
(regardless of the actual use of that channel for Normal Traffic protection).
⇒ The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:
Switching  Macro-state entered by ‘end’ nodes of the span interested with switching
criteria, both initiating a ‘ring switch’ by sending (tail end) to the adjacent ‘switching’ node,
both on the ‘LONG’ and on the ‘SHORT’ path of the ring a ‘ring bridge request’, or
acknowledging (head end), both on LONG / SHORT path a ‘ring bridge request’ destined to
itself. In ‘classic’ application, only ‘switching’
nodes performs ring ‘Bridge&Switch’, on the base of APS signaling exchanged through the
‘LONG’ path
(see yellow nodes in previous example)

‘Full’ Pass-through  Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not ‘switching’), by-
passing ‘bridge request’ not destined to itself; performing also the ‘bidirectional’ by-pass
(EW, W E) of ‘protection’ resources (Low Priority channels). ‘Pass-through’ nodes are
also called ‘intermediate’ nodes.
(see grey nodes in previous example)
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 62
4F ‘classic’ SPRing – Ring Switch
In ‘classic’ application (2F/4F) the
protection path corresponds always to
the ‘LONG’ path of the scheme: the
N.T. recovered E.T. squelched propagation delay for the protected
PATH
traffic is, then, always maximized.
‘SHORT’

When applied to huge rings including


‘transoceanic’ links or ‘via satellite’
NE 1 links, and depending on the type of
Switch Bridge
service transported, this delay can lead
Bridge
P.T.
to a final performance degradation of
E.T. the service
NE 4 NE 2 squelched

Switch
P.T.

NE 3 PATH

‘LONG’
‘Working’ resources

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched ‘Squelching’ ‘Protection’ resources


(AIS injection)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 63


4F ‘transoceanic’ SPRing – Ring Switch
In ‘transoceanic’ application (4F) the
protection path in ‘ring switch’ condition,
corresponds to the ‘LONG’ path of the
N.T. recovered E.T. squelched scheme only when the protected Normal
PATH
Traffic is configured between adjacent
nodes.
‘SHORT’

With different traffic distribution (where


node pass-through occurs) the
Switch NE 1 Bridge protection path is limited to the portion
Pass-through
of the ring, not fault affected, between
E.T. nodes terminating the protected Normal
NE 4 NE 2 Traffic.
squelched

Switch
Bridge
NE 3 Temporary squelching, if associated LP channels
are not required for ‘ring switch’ connectivity
PATH

‘LONG’

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 64


4F SPRing – Ring Switch - I

⇒ ‘Ring Switch’, in 4F topology occurs anytime a failure/degrade affects at least two out of
four transmission means of a span, in such a way that both one ‘working’ and one
‘protection’ resources results fault affected or when a ring command is applied on that span. As
for ‘2F ring’, Normal Traffic is recovered through ‘protection’ resources on the ‘LONG’ path.
⇒ In ‘classic’ (also called ‘terrestrial’) application, same behaviour already described about
‘2F’ ring’, same E.T. squelching policy and same node macro-states apply.
⇒ In ‘transoceanic’ application, current standard reference (SDH) states that during ‘ring
switch’ all the Extra Traffics configured through the ring are ‘squelched’; after the ‘ring switch’
is performed, those Low Priority channels not used for Normal Traffic protection are re-
connected to Extra Traffic.
This is a slow process possibly using ‘communication channels’ between the nodes of the
ring, i.e. control plane, for E.T. re-configuration (protection protocol independent).
Both ‘distributed’ ring switch and Extra Traffic recovery is applicable, due to the knowledge
of the whole ring connectivity at each node of the ring (see ‘Traffic Map’).
The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 65


4F SPRing – Ring Switch - II

Switching  Macro-state entered by ’end’ node of the span interested with switching
criteria, initiating a ‘ring switch’ by sending (tail end) to the adjacent ‘switching’ node, both
on the ‘LONG’ and on the ‘SHORT’ path of the ring a ‘ring bridge request’, or acknowledging
(head end), both on LONG/SHORT path a ‘ring bridge request’ destined to itself.
Switching nodes performs ring
‘Bridge&Switch’ only when adding/dropping (terminating) Normal Traffic to be protected on the
base of APS signaling exchanged through the ‘LONG’ path (see yellow nodes in previous
example).

‘Full’ Pass-through  Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not ‘switching’), by-
passing ‘bridge request’ not destined to itself. The same protocol specified in ‘classic’
application is used. ‘Pass-through’ nodes performs ring ‘Bridge&Switch’ only when
adding/dropping (terminating) Normal Traffic to be protected on the base of APS signaling
received by both switching nodes; otherwise, they realize the ‘bidirectional by-pass (EW,
W E) of ‘protection’ resources (Low Priority channels). ‘Pass-through’ nodes are also called
‘intermediate’ nodes (see grey nodes in previous example).

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 66


SPRing APS channel content

Protocol parameters

• Request Type  i.e. the request (failure / degrade / command) or state (‘No Request’ / WTR)
to be signalled / acknowledged by opposite end of the span interested

• Destination Node  i.e. the adjacent node addressed by APS signalling

• Source Node  i.e. the node sourcing the APS signaling

• Path  i.e. the portion of the ring interested by APS signaling, ‘short’ ,(span fault affected), or
‘long’, (the remaining spans of the ring)

• Bridge status  i.e. ‘idle’, ‘bridge’ , ’bridge & switch’ matrix configuration

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 67


4F SPRing – Span switch
Temporary squelching in ‘transoceanic’
‘Working’ resource application, if associated LP channels are not
x ‘Bridge’ to ‘Protection’
required for ‘span switch’ connectivity
resource x
N.T. recovered E.T. squelched
PATH
‘SHORT’

‘Switch’ to ‘Protection’
resource x

NE 1
Bridge

E.T. E.T.
squelched NE 2 kept
NE 4 K - pass-through

Switch
NE 3 The protection path corresponds
always to the ‘SHORT’ path of the
PATH

scheme: i.e. Normal Traffic is


recovered through the same span
‘LONG’
along protection resource.
N.T. recovered E.T. kept

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 68


4F SPRing – Span switch
⇒ ‘Span Switch’, in 4F topology (both ‘classic’ and ‘transoceanic’ applications) occurs
anytime a failure/degrade affects only the ‘working’ transmission mean of a span in one or
both directions or a span command is applied. Normal Traffic is recovered through the
associated ‘protection’ resource of that span by using the same algorithm already
described for ‘linear’ 1:N scheme.
⇒ During ‘span switch’ (both ‘classic’ and ‘transoceanic’ applications) all the Extra Traffics
configured in the span fault affected are ‘squelched’; while remaining E.T. allocated in
different spans of the ring are kept. In ‘transoceanic’ application, those L.P. channels not
required for ‘span switch’ connectivity, then the associated E.T., are restored after ‘span
switch’ is performed (same way already described for ‘ring switch’).
⇒ The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:
Switching  Macro-state entered by ’end’ node of the span interested with switching
criteria, initiating a ‘span switch’ by sending (tail end) to the adjacent ‘switching’ node, both
on the ‘LONG’ and on the ‘SHORT’ path of the ring a ‘span bridge request’, or
acknowledging (head end) , both on LONG/SHORT path, a ‘span bridge request’ destined to
itself. Only switching
nodes performs span ‘Bridge&Switch’ (see yellow nodes in the example).

‘K byte’ Pass-through  Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not ‘switching’),
by-passing ‘bridge request’ sent on the ’LONG’ path by ‘switching’ node. The same protocol
specified in ‘classic’ application is used.
‘K byte’ Pass-through nodes do not perform any
reconfiguration
A. of local
Bellato – CTO T&A Team connectivity.
- OND 69 ‘K-byte Pass-through nodes are also called
‘intermediate’ nodes. (see grey nodes in the example)
Squelching in ring schemes

Extra Traffic squelching


The same considerations already reported for linear schemes apply: the access to
the ‘Low Priority’ by Normal Traffic might lead to traffic misconnected, if no
specific mechanism was implemented: Extra Traffic squelching performed before
any matrix re-configuration (Bridge/Switch/Pass-Through) avoids this potential
problem.

⇒ In ring schemes, Extra Traffic squelching implies that nodes ‘dropping’ Extra
Traffic forces a defined alarm signal (AIS) towards the Extra Traffic user, both
in case they enter the ‘switching’ (due to a ring/span switch) or the ‘pass-
through’ state.
Besides, nodes performing ‘span switch’ have also to insert the alarm
signal (AIS) towards the ring, on ‘Low Priority’ channels carrying possible E.T.
passing from the ‘protected’ span through the node.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 70


Squelching in ring schemes

‘4F’ topology N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

NE 1
Span
Br&Sw

NE 4 NE 2
E.T. squelched
on adjacent span
NE 3

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched


(by NE 4)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 71


Squelching in ring schemes

Ring squelching
This type of squelching is needed in 2F/4F ‘classical’ SPRing, when a node of the
ring becomes ‘isolated’ either for node failure or for multiple failures requiring ‘ring
switch’ at both sides.
In this case, due to the ring switch action performed by nodes adjacent the
isolated one (i.e. ‘switching’ nodes), possible traffics terminated into isolated node
and allocated on same ‘High Priority’ channels for both sides (West/East), would be
misconnected by accessing the same ‘Low Priority’ channels.

⇒ This condition is avoided by inserting at the ‘switching’ nodes AIS signal on


‘protection channels’, making them unavailable through the ring (the AIS
insertion is performed bi- directionally).

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 72


Squelching in ring schemes
N.T. #1

Wk Ch. #x

Pr Ch. #x+ N/2


W NE 1 E

E W
N.T. #1
NE 4 NE 2
N.T. #2
W E
E NE 3 W
Pr Ch. #x+ N/2
Wk Ch. #x

Same ‘Protection’ channel accessed by N.T. #2


switching nodes (NE1-NE3) through Ring
Br&Sw  with no squelching policy,
permanent misconnection produced
between N.T. #1 and N.T. #2

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 73


Squelching in ring schemes
N.T. #1

Wk CH. #x

Pr CH. #x+ N/2


W NE 1 E

E W
N.T. #1
NE 4 NE 2
N.T. #2
W E
E NE 3 W
Pr CH. #x+ N/2
Wk CH. #x

N.T. #2
Misconnection avoided through Low
Priority channel squelching (AIS
injection) at switching nodes

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 74


SNC vs SPRing
Up to 2xN paths Up to N paths
N/2 ‘wk‘ resources N ‘wk‘ resources

N/2 ‘wk‘ resources


N/2 ‘wk‘ resources

Total N paths

N/2 ‘wk‘ resources


WITH WITH
WITH‘HUBBED’
‘HUBBED’TRAFFIC
TRAFFICALLOCATION
WITH‘ADJACENT’
‘ADJACENT’TRAFFIC
TRAFFICALLOCATION
ALLOCATION THE
ALLOCATION
THE
THE PROTECTION SCHEMEWITH
PROTECTION SCHEME WITH THE PROTECTION SCHEMEWITH
PROTECTION SCHEME WITH
MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH
MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH
MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH OCCUPATION
OCCUPATION
OCCUPATION OCCUPATION
IS… IS…
IS…
IS…

SPRING SNC

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 75


SNC vs SPRing

Ring protection

Access
network
Access
networ
k

e2e protection

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 76


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
• Restoration
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 77


Centralized Restoration

Centralized restoration is
historically an application of Operating System
network management in Transport
Network (i.e. SDH), where the
amount of operators was very
limited and a complete
DCN Network
geographical network (e.g. country)
used to be configured and
controlled by a single(few) ECC
manager(s).

Centralized Restoration is an
application provided to an operator Network
by a ‘single’ vendor. Element

Centralized Restoration is a Transport Network


network application not
standardized, i.e. proprietary Generic Path
applications are provided by each
vendor.
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 78
System Evolution - Distributed Restoration
Distributed Restoration is
historically an application coming from
Data Network survivability , where DCN Network
the amount of ‘Private Networks’ (i.e.
Data) is unlimited and it becomes DCN Network
unfeasible to configure and control
different networks connected to each NE from ECC
other through a single (few) vendor ‘a’
manager(s).

Distributed Restoration is an
application thought for a ‘multi’
vendor enviroment.
The de-regulation in ‘Public Networks’, Transport Network
has made ‘distributed management’,
then ‘distributed restoration’ attractive
also for Transport Network. This Generic Path Distributed
Manger
implies a standard activity in order to
align applications from different NE from
vendor ‘b’
vendors.

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 79


Content
> Transport Network Concept
> Need for traffic protection
> Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration
> Basics for traffic protection
> Protection Schemes in Transport Networks
> APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN
• Layering
• Network
• Frame Structure
• Schemes
• Network Applications
• Reference Standards

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 80


SDH layering
LAYERS
PHYSk PHYSo
PHYSICAL
RSTSk RSTSo
RS TRAIL
MSTSk MSTSo
MSPC
MS TRAIL

MSASk MSASo
HTCM HPOM
HTCT HSUT
HPC
HO PATH/TRAIL
HPTSk HO HPTSo
Trail

HPASk LPASo
LTCM LPOM
LTCT LSUT
LPC
LO PATH/TRAIL

LPTSk LO LPTSo
Trail
CLIENT CLIENT
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 81
SDH Network
STM-N STM-N STM-N

ST tra l
NRS
M
RS trail RS trail RS trail

-
M
S
MS trail MS trail ADM

il
tr
ai
2R 3R
TM TM
DXC DXC ADM ADM
TM TM

DXC

HO / LO PATH (TRAIL)

KEY
TM  Terminal Multiplexer
LE (2R)  Line Equipment: repeater (no Ck recovery)
LE (3R)  Line Equipment: regenerator (Ck recovery)
DXC  Digital Cross-Connect
ADM  Add Drop Multiplex

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 82


STM-N Frame Structure
STM-N

RSOH AUG V
C High
Two ways of SDH 3
High
Administrative pointers
P Order
Order
multiplexing
O
H
MSOH

V
C
3
Low
Low
V P Order
Order
C O
4 High
High H
KEY P
RSOH  Regenerator Section OverHead
Order
Order V
O C
MSOH  Multiplex Section OverHead
AUG  Administrative Unit Group H 1 Low
Low
VC  Virtual Container 2 Order
Order
POH  Path OverHead P
O
H

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 83


SDH Protection Schemes - Summary
LAYER SCHEME TRIGGERING SWITCH REFERENCE
FAULT COM. TIME STANDARDS

MS Trail Linear 1+1 MSP MS layer defects 50 ms ITU-T G.841


(uni/bid) (SF/SD)
ITU-T G.783
Linear 1:N MSP MS layer defects 50 ms
(uni/bid) (SF/SD) ITU-T G.808.1

2F/4F ‘classic’ MS layer defects 50 ms


MS-SPRing (bid) (SF/SD)
4F ‘transoceanic’ MS layer defects 300 ms
MS-SPRing (bid) (SF/SD)

HO/LO Linear 1+1 MSA/HPA defects 50 ms


Path SNCP/I (uni) (SF AIS/LOP)

Linear 1+1 MSA/HPA defects 50 ms


SNCP/N (uni) + HPOM/LPOM
defects (SF/SD)

Linear 1+1 HTCM/LTCM 50 ms


SNCP/S (uni) defects (N1/N2
byte  SF/SD)
HO/LO Linear 1+1 VC
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 84
SNCP/N defects 50 ms
Trail Trail (uni/bid) (SF/SD)
SDH Multiplex Section Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 MSP - Linear 1:N MSP

Layer MS Trail

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min


(Revertive mode)
APS channel K1 – K2 byte of MSOH
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear SF on Protection Lockout – Pr FS SF High Priority SF
States (decreasing Low Priority SD High Priority SD Low Priority MS WTR EX
NR
priority level)
N x Clear N x Lockout – Wk (in 1:N scheme only)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer NOT DEFINED by ITU-T G.841

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 85


SDH Multiplex Section Protection
Protection Scheme 2/4F ‘classic’ MS-SPRing - 4F ‘transoceanic’ MS-SPRing (ring)

Layer MS Trail

Switching Mode Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive

W.T.R. timer NOT DEFINED


(Revertive mode)
APS channel K1 – K2 bytes of MSOH
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear LP-S (or SF-P) FS-S FS-R SF-S SF-R SD-P SD-S
States* (decreasing SD-R  MS-S MS-R WTR EX-S EX-R  NR
priority level) Clear LW-S
Clear LW-R
Switch Completion 50 ms for ‘classic’ application (1200 Km/16 NE’s propagation delay
Time included)
300 ms for ‘transoceanic’ application
Hold-Off timer NOT REQUIRED by ITU-T G.841

* - S  span / P  protection / R  ring


A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 86
SDH Multiplex Section Protection – SF / SD

STM-N

RSOH

Administrative pointers

MSOH

• K2 byte (bits 5-8)  MS-AIS (due to LOS, LOF) (SF)


• B2 bytes  B2 Exber (SF) / B2 Signal Degrade (SD)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 87


APS channel in SDH MSP schemes

STM-N STM-N

RSOH RSOH

Pointers bits 1-4 Pointers bits 1-4


K1 K2 K1 K2

MSOH MSOH

Request Type Request Type


Req. Ch. Id. Source Node ID
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status) Destination
Arch. Mode Node ID Path
Bridge Status

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 88


SDH MS Protection Applications

M
S
tr
MS trail MS trail

ai
ADM

l
Working
2R 3R
TM TM 2/4 F
DXC Protection DXC ADM MS-SPRing ADM
TM TM

Linear 1+1 MSP Linear 1:N MSP DXC

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 89


SDH SNC Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 SNCP/I - ‘Inherent’ based on MSA (HO) or HPA defects
(LO)

Layer HO / LO Path

Switching Mode Unidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 sec step


(Revertive mode)
APS channel NOT APPLICABLE
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (SSF) Manual Switch WTR
States (decreasing  NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not
Time applicable)

Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 90


SDH SNC Protection – SF (SNCP/I)

STM-N • H1, H2 bytes  AUAIS / AULOP (HO VC3/VC4 SSF  SF)


• H1, H2 bytes  TUAIS / TULOP (LO VC3 SSF  SF)

RSOH

H1 H2 H3 VC 12
V1

V2
MSOH
V3

V4

V5
• V1, V2 bytes  TUAIS / TULOP (LO VC12 SSF 
SF)
K4

Stuff byte

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 91


SDH SNC Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 SNCP/N - ‘Not Intrusive’ based on MSA / HPA defects +
POH defects (HPOM / LPOM)

Layer HO / LO Path
Switching Mode Unidirectional
Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive
W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 sec step
(Revertive mode)
APS channel NOT APPLICABLE
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF SD Manual Switch WTR
States (decreasing  NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not
Time applicable)

Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 92


SDH SNC protection – SF / SD (SNCP/N)
VC 3/4 POH
HO / LO SSF (SF) J1
(AUAIS / TUAIS B3
AULOP / TULOP) C2
+ G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
• J1  Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF) N1
• B3  B3 Exber (SF) / B3 Signal Degrade
(SD) VC 12 POH
• C2  Signal Label Mismatch (SF) / UNEQ
V5
(SF)
• V5  Bip2 Exber (SF) / Bip2 Signal Degrade (SD) / Signal J2
Label Mismatch (SF) / UNEQ (SF) 140
• J2  Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF) N2
bytes
• K4 (bit 1)  ‘Extended’ Signal Label Mismatch (SF)
K4

Stuff byte

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 93


SDH SNC Protection Application

HO/LO Sub-Network
HO/LO
HO/LO Sub-Network Sub-Net. ADM

Working
2R 3R
TM TM HO/LO
DXC Protection DXC ADM SNCP N ADM
TM TM

HO/LO SNCP N HO/LO SNCP I DXC

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 94


SDH SNC Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 SNCP/S - ‘Subsystem’ based on N1 byte (HO-POH) and
N2 byte (LO-POH) monitoring through HTCM block or LTCM block

Layer HO / LO Path
Switching Mode Unidirectional
Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive
W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 sec step
(Revertive mode)
APS channel NOT APPLICABLE
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF SD Manual Switch WTR
States (decreasing  NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not
Time applicable)

Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 95


SDH SNC Protection – SF / SD (SNCP/S)

HO / LO SSF (SF) VC 3/4 POH


(AUAIS / TUAIS J1
AULOP / TULOP)
+

K3
N1
• N1 Bip8 Signal Degrade (SD) / UNEQ (SF) / Loss of
Tandem Connection (SF) / Trace Identifier Mismatch
(SF) VC 12 POH
V5

J2

N2
• N2 Bip2 Signal Degrade (SD) / UNEQ (SF) / Loss of
Tandem Connection (SF) / Trace Identifier Mismatch K4
(SF)
Stuff byte

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 96


SDH SNCP/S Application

DOMAIN B HTCT/LTCT
Protection
HTCT/LTCT

DXC DXC DOMAIN C


DOMAIN A

DXC

DXC DXC
Working

HO / LO VC TC
(intermediate monitoring)

HO / LO VC trail (end-to-end monitoring)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 97


SDH Trail Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 HO / LO VC Trail (linear 1:1 f.f.s.)

Layer HO / LO Trail

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional f.f.s.

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 sec step


(Revertive mode)
APS channel K3 (bits 1-4; APS protocol T.B.D.) (HO)
(Bidirectional Mode) K4 (bits 3-4; APS protocol T.B.D.) (LO)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF* SD* Manual Switch
States (decreasing WTR  NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE’s propagation delay is T.B.D.)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

* - As for SNCP/N

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 98


SONET Layering (Bellcore GR-253)
Payload (DS1, DS2, DS3
DS4NA, Video,
etc.)
LAYERS

Map Payload Payload and Path Overhead


and Path OH HO/LO PATH
into SPE

Map SPE SPE and Line Overhead


and Line
LINE
OH
into
internal
Map
signal STS-N
internal Signal
signal and
SECTION
Section OH
into
STS-N
Light
signal
Pulses
Optical PHYSICAL
Conversion

Terminal STE Regenerator Terminal

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 99


SONET Network

O
OC-M OC-M OC-M

C-
Se ne

M
Section Section Section

ct
Li

io
n
Line Line ADM

3R
TM TM
DCS DCS ADM ADM
TM TM

DCS

STS path / VT PATH

The following matches may be considered between SDH


and SONET technology:
KEY
STM-N  OC-M (where M=3N)
TM  Terminal Multiplexer
RS  Section
RGTR  Regenerator (3R)
MS  Line
DCS  Digital Cross-Connect
HO PATH  STS path
ADM  Add Drop Multiplex
LO PATH  VT path

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 100


SONET Frame Structure
OC-N / STS-N
V
Section T Low
Low
1.5
Overhead P
Order
Order
O
STS1 H
pointers V
T Low
Low
Line S 2
T P
Order
Order
Overhead
S High
High O
1 Order
Order V H
P T
O 3
Low
Low
Transport Overhead H P Order
Order
O
H
V
T Low
Low
6
P
Order
Order
O
H

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 101


SONET Protection Schemes - Summary

LAYER SCHEME TRIGGERING SWITCH REFERENCE


FAULT COM. STANDARDS
TIME
Line Linear 1+1 APS Line layer defects 50 ms Bellcore GR-253
(uni/bid) (SF/SD) (linear APS)

Linear 1:N APS Line layer defects 50 ms Bellcore GR- 1400


(uni/bid) (SF/SD) (UPSR)

2F/4F ‘classic’ Line layer defects 50 ms Bellcore GR-1230


(BLSR)
MS-SPRing (bid) (SF/SD)
HO/LO Linear 1+1 UPSR STS/VT pointer 50 ms
Path (uni) processing
defects (AIS/LOP)
+ STS/VT POH
defects

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 102


SONET Line Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 APS - Linear 1:N APS

Layer Line

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 min step


(Revertive mode)
APS channel K1 – K2 byte of Line Overhead
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear SF on Protection Lockout – Pr FS SF High Priority SF
States (decreasing Low Priority SD High Priority SD Low Priority MS WTR EX 
NR
priority level)
N x Clear N x Lockout – Wk (in 1:N scheme only)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-253

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 103


SONET Line Protection
Protection Scheme 2/4F Bidirectional Line Self–healing Ring (BLSR)

Layer Line

Switching Mode Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; step 1 min (optionally, lower bound of 0 min)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel K1 – K2 bytes of MSOH
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear LP-S (or SF-P) FS-S FS-R SF-S SF-R SD-P SD-S
States* (decreasing SD-R  MS-S MS-R WTR EX-S EX-R  NR
priority level) Clear LW-S
Clear LW-R
Switch Completion 50 ms for ‘classic’ application (1200 Km/16 NE’s propagation delay
Time included)

Hold-Off timer NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-1230

* - S  span / P  protection / R  ring


A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 104
SONET Line Protection – SF / SD
OC-N OPTICAL SIGNAL ONLY

Section
Overhead

STS1 pointers

Line
Overhead

LOS (Loss of Signal) and LOF (Loss of Frame) are


Transport Overhead considered as direct triggers (both as SF) for Line
protection scheme

• K2 byte (bits 5-8)  AIS-L (SF)


• B2 bytes  B2 Exber (SF) / B2 Signal Degrade
(SD)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 105


APS channel in SONET Line schemes

OC-N OC-N

SectionOH SectionOH

Pointers bits 1-4 Pointers bits 1-4


K1 K2 K1 K2

LineOH LineOH

Request Type Request Type


Req. Ch. Id. Source Node ID
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status) Destination
Arch. Mode Node ID Path
Bridge Status

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 106


SONET Path Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 Unidirectional Path Self-healing Ring (UPSR) - based
on STS / VT pointer processing defects + STS POH / VT POH defects

Layer HO / LO Path

Switching Mode Unidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; 1 min step


(Revertive mode)
APS channel NOT APPLICABLE
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch AIS;LOP;UNEQ* Ex BER**
States (decreasing PDI-P^ SD +
 Manual Switch WTR  NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not
Time applicable)

Hold-Off timer NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-1400

- ‘P’  for STS path (HO) / ‘V’  for VT path (LO) ^ - Applicable only to STS path
* - Excessive STS path BER (HO) / Excessive VT path + -BER
STS(LO)
Signal Degrade (HO) / VT Signal Degrade (LO

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 107


SONET Path Protection – SF / SD
OC-N / STS-N • H1, H2 bytes  AIS-P / LOP-P (SF)
Section
Overhead
STS1
pointers • V1, V2 bytes  AIS-V / LOP-V (SF) VT
V1
Line
Overhead VT V2
pointer
V3
STS1 V4
• B3  B3 Exber (SF)
J1
B3 Signal Degrade V5
B3 (SD)
C2 • C2  UNEQ (SF) J2
G1 VT POH
STS1 POH F2 Z6
H4
• V5  Bip2 Exber (SF) Z7
Z3
Bip2 Signal Degrade
Z4 (SD) Uneq (SF) Stuff byte
Z5

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 108


OTH Layering LAYERS
MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL
OTSSk OTSSo
TRANSMISSION

OPTICAL CHANNEL (λ )
OMSSk OMSSo
ASSIGNMENT &
OMSnP MULTIPLEXING

OMS/OCH_A OMS/OCH_A
OCH ELECTRO/OPTICAL
POM CONVERSION
OCHSo OCH_C OCHSk

OTUkSk ODUkSk ODUkSo OTUkSo


TCT ODU DIGITAL
TCM POM
OPUkSo ODUk_C OPUkSk PATH

CLIENT CLIENT

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 109


OTH Network
ODUk path (trail)
OCH, OTUk trail OCH, OTUk trail OCH, OTUk trail
OMSn trail OMSn trail OMSn trail OMSn trail
OTSn trail OTSn trail OTSn trail OTSn trail OTSn trail
3R 3R
LT LT R OADM LT
LT LT
OXC OXC
STM-N
LT LT OSn
STM-N

LT
DXC 3R DXC
IP data IP

KEY
LT  Line Terminal (optical channel multiplexing)
OADM  Optical Channel Add/Drop Multiplexer
OXC  ODU Cross-Connect
3R  Wavelength assignment/regeneration (O/E/O, w/ clock recovery)
R  repeater (Optical Amplifier)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 110


OTH Frame Structure
2.5 Gb/s 
SDH/SONE FDDI ATM IP GbE clear channel K=1
T
10 Gb/s 
K=2
OH Client
Digital domain

Associated
overhead

40 Gb/s 
OH OPUk OCh Payload K=3
Unit (OPUk)

OH ODUk FEC OCh Data Unit (ODUk)

OTUk OCh Transport Unit (OTUk)


Non-associated overhead

OCh OH OCH Optical Channel (OCh)


Optical domain

OCC OCC Optical Channel Carrier (OCC)


Optical Physical Section
OPS0
OMS OH OMSn Optical Multiplex Section
OPSn
OTS OH OTSn Optical Transmission Section

λ OSC Optical Transport Module


Optical Supervisory Channel

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 111


OTH Protection Schemes - Summary
LAYER SCHEME TRIGGERING FAULT SWITCH REFERENCE
COM. STANDARDS
TIME
OMS Linear 1+1 OMS OMS layer LOS + OMS 50 ms ITU-T G.873.1
Trail (uni) OH OOS defects (Linear protection)
(SF/SD) ITU-T G.798
OCH Linear 1+1 OCH OCH layer LOS 50 ms ITU-T G.808.1
Trail SNC/N (uni) (through OCH POM) + (under definition)
OCH OH OOS defects
(SF/SD)
ODUk Linear 1+1/1:N OTUk defects (SF/SD) 50 ms
Path ODUk SNCP/I
(uni/bid)
Linear 1+1/1:N ODUk defects 50 ms
ODUk SNCP/N (through ODUk POM)
(uni/bid) (SF/SD)
Linear 1+1 TCMi defects (up to 50 ms
SNCP/S (uni/bid) six TC independent
levels in ODUk OH)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 112


OTH OMS Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 OMS (scheme under definition - based on OMS LOS
detection and OMS-OH OOS defects detection)

Layer OMS trail

Switching Mode Unidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; (T.B.D. step)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel Not Required (since ‘unidir’ switching mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear SF on Protection (TSF-P)  Lockout – Pr FS SF (TSF-P) SD
States (decreasing (TSF-O)* MS WTR NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

* - TSF-O may be disabled by provisioning

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 113


OTH OMS Protection – SF / SD
Logical content for protection purpose
Forward Defect Indication Overhead  TSF-O (SD)
(FDI-O due to ‘Loss of Signal Overhead’ or ‘Trace Identifier Mismatch’
detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH level)
Forward Defect Indication Payload  TSF-P (SF)
(FDI-P due to ‘Loss of Signal Payload’ / ‘Trace Identifier Mismatch’ /
‘Payload Missing Indication’ detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH
OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

level)

OTU
OCh OH
OCH
OMS OH
OCC OCC
OTS OH
OMSn
OPSn
λ OSC OTSn

Loss of Signal Payload  TSF-P


(SF)
(LOS-P)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 114


OTH OMS Protection Application
OMSn trail OMSn trail OMSn trail

3R 3R
λ OSC
LT LT R Wk λ 1÷ λ LT
LT
N
LT OADM
OXC Pr λ 1÷ λ N
OXC
LT LT
STM-N STM-N
λ OSC (OMS-OH OOS)

Linear 1+1 OMS LT Linear 1+1 OMS


DXC 3R DXC
Same λ ’s bundle

IP IP data

WK λ ’s
x2 Wavelength
accomodation
PR λ ’s
x2

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 115


OTH OCH Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 OCH SNC/N - ‘Not Intrusive’ based on OCH LOS
detection through POM and OCH-OH OOS defects

Layer OCH trail

Switching Mode Unidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; (T.B.D. step)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel Not Applicable
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF-P) SD (TSF-O)*
States (decreasing Manual Switch WTR NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

* - TSF-O may be disabled by provisioning

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 116


OTH OCH Protection – SF / SD
Logical content for protection purpose
Forward Defect Indication Overhead  TSF-O (SD)
(FDI-O due to ‘Loss of Signal Overhead’ or ‘Trace Identifier Mismatch’
detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH level and confirmed at OMS
level)
Forward Defect Indication Payload  TSF-P (SF)
(FDI-P due to ‘Loss of Signal Payload’ / ‘Trace Identifier Mismatch’ /
‘Payload Missing Indication’ detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH
level or due to ‘Loss of Signal Payload detected at OMS level)
OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

OTU
Loss of Signal Payload  TSF-P
OCH OH (SF)
OCH
(LOS-P)
OMS OH
OCC OCC
OTS OH
OMSn
OPSn
λ OSC OTSn

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 117


OTH OCH Protection Application
OCH trail OCH trail

3R λ OSC (OCH OH-OOS)


LT LT R Wk λ 1÷ λ
LT
N
LT OADM
OXC Pr λ 1÷ λ N
OXC OXC
LT LT
STM-N
λ OSC (OCH OH-OOS)

Linear 1+1 OCH LT Linear 1+1 OCH


DXC 3R
Same λ ’s bundle

IP data IP

Optical Fiber
WK λ ’s WK λ ’s
x2
x2
PR λ ’s PR λ ’s
x2

WK λ ’s
Possible wavelength
PR λ ’s
x1 accomodation

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 118


OTH ODUk Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 – Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/I - ‘Inherent’ based on ‘server’
OTUk defects driving ODUk matrix re-configuration

Layer ODUk path

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; (T.B.D. step)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel APS / PCC bytes of ODUk Overhead
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (SSF) SD (SSD) Manual
States (decreasing Switch WTR NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 119


OTH ODUk SNC/I protection – SF / SD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• FAS  LOF (SF)

IAE
BDI
• MFAS  LOM (SF) BEI/BIAE RES
• TTI  Trace Identifier Mismatch SM
(SF) 1 2 3
• BIP-8  DEG (SD) TTI BIP8

Column #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15…………..3824 3825…………4080
Row#

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES


2
FEC
3 ODU Overhead

OH ODUk FEC

OTUk
KEY
FAS: Frame Alignment Signal (3xF6h,
OCH 3x28h)
MFAS: Multi-frame alignment signal
(0..255)
SM: Section Monitoring overhead
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 120
APS channel in OTN linear protection

ODUk
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 Frame Alignment Overhead OTUk Overhead


TCM
Row#

2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL OPUk


overhead
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP
4
GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES

Bytes 5-6-7 Automatic Protection Switching /


Request Type Protection Communication Channel
Req. Ch. Id. Byte 8  reserved for future use
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status)
Arch. Mode

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 121


OTH ODUk SNC/I Protection Application
OTUk trail OTUk trail

LT LT R
LT LT OADM
OXC OXC OXC
LT LT
STM-N

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/I LT Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/I


DXC 3R

IP data IP

Optical Fiber
WK λ ’s WK λ ’s
x2
x2
PR λ ’s PR λ ’s
x2

WK λ ’s
Possible wavelength
PR λ ’s
x1 accomodation

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 122


OTH ODUk Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 – Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/N - ‘Not Intrusive’ based on
ODUk defects monitored through ODUk POM

Layer ODUk path

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; (T.B.D. step)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel APS / PCC bytes of ODUk OH
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF) SD (TSD) Manual
States (decreasing Switch WTR NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 123


OTH ODUk SNC/N Protection – SF / SD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• STAT  Locked Defect (SF) / ODUkAIS (SF)

BDI
• TTI  Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF) BEI STAT
• BIP-8  DEG (SD) PM
1 2 3
TTI BIP8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 Frame Alignment Overhead OTUk Overhead


TCM
Row#

2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL OPUk


overhead
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP
4
GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES

OH OPUk

OH ODUk FEC KEY


PM: Path
OTUk Moni
torin
g
STAT: Status
A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 124
OTH ODU SNC/N Protection Application
Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/N
ODUk path

LT LT R
LT LT OADM
OXC OXC OXC
LT LT
STM-N

LT
DXC 3R

IP data IP

Optical Fiber
WK λ ’s WK λ ’s
x2
x2
PR λ ’s PR λ ’s
x2

WK λ ’s
Possible wavelength
PR λ ’s
x1 accomodation

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 125


OTH ODUk Protection
Protection Scheme Linear 1+1 – Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/S - based on TCMi defects
monitored at ODUk OH

Layer ODUk path

Switching Mode Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer 5 ÷ 12 min; (T.B.D. step)


(Revertive mode)
APS channel APS / PCC bytes of ODUk OH
(Bidirectional Mode)
Switching Criteria/ Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF) SD (TSD) Manual
States (decreasing Switch WTR NR
priority level)

Switch Completion 50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)


Time
Hold-Off timer 0 ÷ 10 sec; 100 ms step

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 126


OTH ODUk SNC/S Protection – SF / SD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

BDI
• STAT  Locked Defect (SF) / AIS (SF) / LTC BEI/BAEI STAT
(SF) TCMi
• TTI  Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF)
1 2 3
• BIP-8  DEG (SD)
TTI BIP8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 Frame Alignment Overhead OTUk Overhead


TCM
Row#

2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL OPUk


overhead
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP
4
GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES

Up to six
OH OPUk independent TC
levels
monitored/termin
OH ODUk FEC ated
KEY
TCM: Tandem Connection Moniitoring
OTUk STAT: Status

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 127


OTH ODUk SNC/S Protection Application
TCM2 trail
Border of the OTN
Client mapping into ODU
TCM3 trail
Operator A

Operator B
User

Working

User

Protection

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/S (B)

Border of the OTN Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/S (A)


Client mapping into ODU

User QoS supervision (TCM1)


End-to-End path supervision (PM)

A. Bellato – CTO T&A Team - OND 128