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Frederic H.

Martini
Fundamentals of
Anatomy & Physiology
SIXTH EDITION

Chapter 28, part 2


The Reproductive System

PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by


Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Spermatogenesis

• Seminiferous tubules
• Contain spermatogonia
• Stem cells involved in spermatogenesis
• Contain sustentacular cells
• Sustain and promote development of sperm

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Figure 28.5 The Seminiferous Tubules

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Figure 28.5 The Seminiferous Tubules

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Figure 28.6 Chromosomes in Mitosis and
Meiosis

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.6
Spermatogenesis

• Spermatogenesis involves three processes


• Mitosis
• Meiosis
• Spermiogenesis

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Figure 28.7 Spermatogenesis

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.7
Anatomy of spermatozoon

• Each spermatozoon has:


• Head
• Nucleus and densely packed chromosomes
• Middle piece
• Mitochondria that produce the ATP needed to
move the tail
• Tail
• The only flagellum in the human body

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 28.8 Spermiogenesis and Spermatozoon
Structure

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.8
Male reproductive tract

• Testes produce mature spermatozoa


• Sperm enter epididymus
• Elongated tubule with head, body and tail regions
• Monitors and adjusts fluid in seminiferous tubules
• Stores and protects spermatozoa
• Facilitates functional maturation of spermatozoa

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 28.9 The Epididymus

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.9
Ductus deferens AKA vas deferens

• Begins at epididymus
• Passes through inguinal canal
• Enlarges to form ampulla
• Ejaculatory duct at base of seminal vesicle and
ampulla
• Empties into urethra

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Urethra

• Urinary bladder to tip of penis


• Three regions
• Prostatic
• Membranous
• Penile

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Accessory glands

• Seminal vesicles
• Active secretory gland
• Contributes ~60% total volume of semen
• Secretions contain fructose, prostaglandins,
fibrinogen

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Accessory glands

• Prostate gland
• Secretes slightly acidic prostate fluid
• Bulbourethral glands
• Secrete alkaline mucus with lubricating
properties

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 28.10 The Ductus Deferens and
Accessory Glands

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.10a-e
Contents of Semen

• Typical ejaculate = 2-5 ml fluid


• Contains between 20 – 100 million
spermatozoa per ml
• Seminal fluid
• A distinct ionic and nutritive glandular
secretion

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


External genitalia

• Male external genitalia consist of the scrotum and the


penis
• Skin overlying penis resembles scrotum
• Penis
• Contains three masses of erectile tissue
• 2 corpora cavernosa beneath fascia
• 1 corpus spongiosum surrounding urethra
• Dilation of erectile tissue produces erection

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 28.11 The Penis

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Hormones and male reproductive function

• FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)


• Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis
• LH (leutinizing hormone)
• Causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens
• GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone)
• Testosterone
• Most important androgen

PLAY Animation: Male Reprroductive System Flythrough


Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 28.12 Hormonal Feedback and the
Regulation of the Male Reproductive Function

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 28.12