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Reported by:
Entong, Sacredbrin C.
Lulab, Daisy Jane B.
Urquiza, Jove-ann P.
Services provided by Civil Engineers can be
grouped into following broad categories:

 Consultation, research,
investigation, and reports.
 Design services for construction
 Construction services
 Special services for construction
 Engineering support services
 Academic services
 Services as Employee
These services deal primarily with collecting, interpreting,
and reporting information, together with formulating
conclusions and making recommendations. Typical services
in this category are:
2.1.1 Preliminary and Feasibility
Investigations and Reports

These services usually precede the authorization of a

capital project and may involve extensive investigations,
analyses of conditions, and comparison of several possible
plans. These studies may include the impact of a project
upon the cycle costs, financing considerations, and
expected revenues as bases for conclusions and
recommendations regarding the advisability of
undertaking a project.
2.1.2 Planning Studies

These services may include the broad areas of

developing the engineering requirements of master plans
for long-range capital improvement programs; preparation
of preliminary engineering of land development plans,
urban plans, and regional plans; and environmental
conditions and preparation of environmental impact
studies with subsequent engineering planning to improve
or maintain existing conditions.
2.1.3 Appraisals, Valuation and Rate
These services may include investigations and
analyses of existing conditions; capital and operating
costs; overhead costs and costs of financing; and
revenues as needed to evaluate a property or to
recommend establishment of prospective rates.
2.1.4 Assistance in Financial Matters
The Civil Engineer may be engaged by a client who is
planning to issue bonds, particularly revenue bonds, to
finance a capital project. The scope of services may
include an evaluation of capabilities of existing or
proposed facilities to meet present and projected future
needs, statements of probable construction costs, and
an estimate of annual revenue requirements, with a
determination of appropriate rates to provide this
2.1.5 Materials Engineering and 0
Equipment Tests
These services include tests of materials and
equipment under established codes and standards,
specialized examination of equipment and materials
used in construction and industry, and other inspections
and monitoring required by a client.
2.1.6 Direct Personal Services 1

This includes services such as assistance in

preparation for legal proceedings. Appearances before
courts or commissions to render expert opinions and
conclusions, and investigation of technical matters
where specialized civil engineering knowledge,
experience, and judgment is required.
2.1.7 Research and Development 2
Research is a specialized investigation and gathering
of data from existing resources or through laboratory
works and processes related to the purpose and object
of the research. Research and development may cover
the following:
 Development of new construction materials and
methods from concept to commercialization.
 Improvement of construction materials and methods
through exhaustive studies to reduce total
construction cost and at the same time improve
2.1.8 Special Services 3
These services can vary to suit special needs of the client
and can include such diverse activities as:

 Value engineering
 Appraisal and valuation
 Load testing
 Environmental evaluations
 Traffic engineering
 Forensic engineering for structural and other failures
 Operational assistance
 Materials process design
 Pilot studies
 Computer modeling
 Safety engineering
 Topographic, sounding and boundary survey
 Toxic and hazardous waste evaluation
 Permit and application services
 Sales and marketing services
 Expert witness
 Representation of municipal or private entities in
project proposed for privatization
Civil engineering services are required for each of six
typical phases of a construction project. All services are
preferably furnished by the same Civil Engineer for
consistency and efficiency, although at times services in
various phases are furnished by different engineers or by
the client. The services are supplemented by special
services which may be provided by the client, a
specialized engineer, or another Civil Engineer.
2.2.1 Study and Report Phase 5
 This phase involves determination of project scope and
economic and technical evaluation of feasible alternatives.
The services performed during this phase may include:
 Reviewing available data and consulting with the client to
clarify and define the client’s requirements for the
 Advising the client as to the necessity of providing or
obtaining from others additional data or services and
assisting the client in obtaining such data and services
 Identifying and analyzing requirements of governmental
authorities having jurisdiction to approve the design of
the project and participating in consultations with such
 Providing analyses of the clients needs, planning
surveys, comparative evaluations of prospective
sites and solutions.
 Providing a general economic analysis of the
client’s requirements applicable to various
 Preparing a report and presenting alternative
solutions available to the client with the Civil
Engineer’s findings and recommendations.
2.2.2 Preliminary Design Phase 1
 This phase involves the establishment of the general size and
scope of the project and its location on the selected site. The
preliminary design services may include:
 Consulting with the client, reviewing preliminary reports,
clarifying and defining project requirements, reviewing
available data, and discussing general scheduling.
 Advising the client as to whether additional data or
services of the type described under the study and
report phase above are required and assisting the client
in obtaining such data and services.
 Preparing preliminary design documents consisting of
final design criteria, preliminary drawings, outline
specifications, and written descriptions of the project.
 Preparing revised estimates of probable total project
 Providing periodic status reports.
2.2.3 Final Design Phase 1
 7
This phase of project development is usually undertaken only
after the client has approved the preliminary design phase
material. The basic services for the final design phase may
 Preparing construction drawings and specifications showing
the character and extent of the project based on the final
accepted preliminary design documents.
 Preparing and furnishing to the client a revised estimate of
probable total project costs
based on the final drawings and specifications.
 Furnishing the necessary engineering data and assisting in
the application for regulatory permits from local, or national
authorities. This is distinguished from and does not include
detailed applications and supporting documents for
government grants-in-aid or planning grants that would be
furnished as additional services described later this section.
 Preparing basic documents related to construction
contracts for review and approval by the client (and the
client’s legal and other advisors). These include contract
agreement forms, general conditions and supplementary
conditions, invitations to bid, instructions to bidders,
insurance and bonding requirements, and other contract-
related documents.
 Furnishing to the client specified number of copies of
drawings, specifications and other contract documents.
 Providing final design and construction services for design-
build contracts. The engineer generally serves as a
subcontractor to a general contractor during the initial
planning and design phases. Services provided by the
engineer may extended through the construction phase,
as appropriate.
 Providing periodic status reports.
2.2.4 Bidding or Negotiating Phase 8

 Services under this phase may include:

 Assisting the client in advertising for and obtaining bids or
negotiating proposals for each separate prime
construction contract, maintaining a record of prospective
bidders to whom bidding documents have been issued,
attending pre-bid conferences, and receiving and
processing deposits for bidding documents.
 Issuing addenda as appropriate to interpret, clarify,
expand or amend the
bidding documents.
 Assisting the client in determining the qualifications
and acceptability of prospective contractors,
subcontractors and materials suppliers.
 Consulting with and advising the client as to the
acceptability of alternative materials and equipment
proposed by the prospective construction when
substitution prior to the award of contracts is allowed
by the bidding documents.
 Attending the bid opening, preparing bid
tabulation sheets and providing assistance to the
client in evaluating bids or proposals and in
assembling and awarding contracts for
construction, materials, equipment and services.
2.2.5 Construction Phase 1
 Construction phase services may include: 9
 Reviewing, for compliance with design concepts, shop and
erection drawings submitted
by the constructors.
 Reviewing laboratory, shop, and mill test reports on
materials and equipment.
 Visiting the project site at appropriate intervals
 Providing services during construction by a full-time
resident project representative, and by supporting staff as
 Issuing instruction from the client to the contractors, issuing
necessary interpretations and clarifications of contract
documents, preparing change orders, requiring special
inspections and testing of the work, and making
recommendations as to acceptability of the work.
 Making recommendations to the client on corrective
actions or contractual measures that may be exercised by
the owner.
 Preparing sketches required to resolve problems due to
actual field conditions encountered.
 Determining amounts of progress payments due, based on
degree of completion of the work, and recommending
issuance of such payments by the client.
 Observing and assisting performance tests and initial
operation of the project.
 Preparing record drawings from information submitted by
the contractor.
 Making a final inspection and reporting on completion of
the project
2.2.6 Operation Phase 2

At the completion of construction, the Civil Engineer may

as basic service, assist in the star-up of project operations.
The Civil Engineer may be commissioned to prepare a
manual for both operation and maintenance requirements,
and may also provide assistance in adjusting and balancing
equipment, identifying deficiencies and assisting in
obtaining corrections, and performing inspection prior to
the end of the project warranty period. The Civil Engineer
may assist in operator training, setting up job classifications
and salaries, organizing the purchases of supplies
developing charts for recording operational date, and
observing and reporting on project operations.
 A registered Civil Engineer may engage in construction
contracting after being licensed as a contractor by the
Contractors Accreditation Board. It is considered unethical
for a civil engineer to allow his license to be used by any
other construction company except his own.
 A registered Civil Engineer may provide the services of a
supporting technical employee as required of a
construction company. He shall however, be paid the
professional fees, in addition to his regular salary, for any
design work he performs for which he signs as professional
Civil Engineer and/or engineer on record.
 A Civil Engineer may be employed as a construction
engineer, resident Civil Engineer, project engineer,
quality control engineer, cost engineer or engineer
inspector in a project. In accordance with Section 23 of
RA 544, only registered Civil Engineers can take
charge or supervise construction or alteration of any
building or structure and any other civil engineering
works mentioned in Section 2 of the mentioned
Republic Act. The Civil Engineer when employed is
similarly required to comply with the code of ethics of
the profession as the consulting. Civil Engineer.
 Special services required during the study, design,
construction, and operation phases of a construction project
may include investigations, reports, and activities beyond the
scope of the basic services.
 Special services that may be provided by the Civil Engineer
or negotiated with other firms or sub-consultants by the Civil
Engineer acting on behalf of the client could include:
o Geotechnical engineering o Additional copies of reports,
– including test borings, construction drawings,
sampling and analysis, and specifications, and other
recommendations. documents as required for
bidding and construction
o Special studies, tests,
beyond the number specified in
and process
the Basic Services agreement.
determinations to establish
design criteria or o Extra travel and subsistence
demonstrate compliance. as defined by the agreement for
engineering services.
o Land surveys, establishment
of boundaries and monuments, o Value engineering
preparation of easement o Redesign to reflect changes
descriptions, and related requested by the client or
computations and drawings. necessitated by the client’s
o Engineering and topographic acceptance of substitutions
surveys for design and proposed by the contractor.
o Assistance to the client as an expert o Preparation of 2
witness in litigation in connection with assessment and impact statements
the project or in hearings before 3
and other assistance to the client in
approving and regulatory agencies. connection with public hearings.
o Final investigations involving detailed o Additional studies and design efforts
consideration of operation, to meet special conditions
maintenance, and overhead encountered during construction.
expenses; preparation of final rate o Assistance to the client in the
schedules, and earning and expense selection and engagement of
statements; appraisal, valuations, architects, other engineers,
and material audits or inventories contractors and subcontractors, and
required for certification of force observation and approval of their
account construction performed by services or work; contacts with
the client or for extra work done by governmental agencies to obtain
the contractor. permits and documents; and other
o Preparation of detailed applications services related to project
and supporting documents grants or development.
advances for public works o Assessment of a completed project’s
ability to meet its design intent
o Plotting, computing, and filing of relative to capacity, maintainability,
subdivision plans, staking of lots, and operability, or reliability.
other land planning and partitioning o Computer simulation and modeling.
The engineering support services in general civil
engineering practice may involve drafting, land and
construction surveying, and the other data gathering
activities for specialized purposes. Although persons who
are not Civil Engineers sometimes accomplish some of these
tasks, the procurement of adequate and correct date usually
requires professional Civil Engineering judgment and
guidance. Since soundness of any engineering decision is
dependent upon the accuracy and suitability of data
obtained in field and laboratory investigations these
supporting services must be under the guidance of the Civil
Engineer whose decisions will be based upon those data.
These services involve full or part time teaching or training
of prospective professionals and also the upgrading of
knowledge and skills of fellows professionals. Academic
services may include:
 Teaching of civil engineering courses in engineering
colleges/universities on part/full time basis. As per RA
8981, all subjects for licensure examinations shall be
taught by persons who are holders of valid certificates
of registration/professional licenses and professional
identification cards, or special temporary permits, or a
valid certificate of competency for the profession issued
by the Commission, and who comply with the other
requirements of the CHED.
 Lecturing in Civil Engineering courses designed by
the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers for
practicing engineers who want to obtain CPD
 Conducting tutorials/refresher courses on civil
engineering concepts and related subjects.
 Serving as a Resources Speaker in Technical
 Writing technical articles and pamphlets.
 6work
This is a condition when a Civil Engineer engages to perform
or fulfill duties regularly for wages or salary being paid by an
 A Civil Engineer may be employed for any position or function in
any commercial or institutional organization. Where he is
performing civil engineering functions, he is required to follow the
code of ethics for Civil Engineers and comply with the standards
and guidelines of this manual. A licensed Civil Engineer may not
allow his licensed to be used by the company that employs him
without the proper agreement for his professional services. Where
the firm he is working for uses his license to sign and seal the
plans, specifications and contract document, the Civil Engineer
much charge the professional fee for said services.
 A Civil Engineer in part time employment with a firm is
considered to be an employee and at the
same time a consultant of the firm.
 The standards for an employee and an 7
consultant as defined in this manual apply to this Civil
 Any Civil Engineer employed as an individual consultant of
any firm, whether the firm is performing engineering,
commercial, administrative, management or financial
services is required to comply with the requirements and
the standards herein established for a consulting Civil
Engineering firm or consulting Civil Engineer.
 All Government Civil Engineers employed by the
instrumentalities of the Government e.g. national and
local, shall be governed by pertinent existing laws and
regularities and particularly to those prescribed by the
Civil Service Commission. In case of any conflict with any
of the provisions of this Manual of Practice, such pertinent
laws and regulations shall take precedence and shall