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Statistical quality control (SQC):
Statistical quality control refers to the use of
statistical methods in the monitoring and
maintaining of the quality of products and services
. One method, referred to as acceptance sampling,
can be used when a decision must be made to
accept or reject a group of parts or items based on
the quality found in a sample. A second method,
referred to as statistical process control, uses
graphical displays known as control charts to
determine whether a process should be continued
or should be adjusted to achieve the desired
Three SQC Categories:
Statistical quality control (SQC) is the term used to
describe the set of statistical tools used by quality
• SQC encompasses three broad categories of;
A.Descriptive statistics:
 e.g. the mean, standard deviation, and range
B. Statistical process control (SPC)
Involves inspecting the output from a process
Quality characteristics are measured and charted
Helpful in identifying in-process variations
C. Acceptance sampling used to randomly inspect a
batch of goods to determine acceptance/rejection
Control Charts show sample data
plotted on a graph with CL, UCL, and
LCL. It consists of three horizontal lines
 CL: A central line to indicate the
desired standard.
 UCL: Upper Limit Control.
 LCL: Lower Control Limit.
The outline of Control Chart
Types of Control Charts:
 Control chart for variables are used to
monitor characteristics that can be
measured, e.g. length, weight,
diameter, time
 Control charts for attributes are used
to monitor characteristics that have
discrete values and can be counted,
e.g. % defective, number of flaws in a
Control Charts for Variables:
Use x-bar charts to monitor the
changes in the mean of a process
(central tendencies)
Use R-bar charts to monitor the
dispersion or variability of the process
You are given below the values of sample mean (X) and
the range ( R ) for ten samples of size 5 each. Draw mean
chart and comment on the state of control of the process.

Given the following control chart constraint for : n = 5,

A2 = 0.58, D3 = 0 and D4 = 2.115
The above diagram shows all the three
control lines with the data points
plotted, since four points falls out of the
control limits, we can say that the
process is out of control.
Control Charts for Attributes i.e.
discrete events:
 Use a P-Chart (also known as Fraction Defective
Chart) for yes/no or good/bad decisions in which
defective items are clearly identified
 Use a C-Chart (also known as Number of Defective
Chart) for more general counting when there can be
than one defect per unit
 Number of flaws or stains in a carpet sample
cut from a production run
 Number of complaints per customer at a hotel
P-Chart Example: A Production manager for a tire company has
inspected the number of defective tires in five random samples with
20 tires in each sample. The table below shows the number of
defective tires in each sample of 20 tires. Calculate the control
limits. Number
Number of Proportio
Sample Tires in n
of each Defective
Defective Sample
1 3 20 .15
2 2 20 .10
3 1 20 .05
4 2 20 .10
5 1 20 .05
Total 9 100 .09
P- Control Chart
C-Chart Example: The number of weekly customer complaints are
monitored in a large hotel using a c-chart. Develop three sigma
control limits using the data table below.
Number of
1 3
2 2
3 3
4 1
5 3
6 3
7 2
8 1
9 3
10 1
Total 22
NOTE: Z = 3
C- Control Chart