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Rhetorical Strategy and Organization

Rhetorical strategy
Rhetorical strategy to
Welcome questions ask about
this course onhow paragraphs or
passages are organized, the point of view from which the
paragraph is written. And how the counterarguments are
They are typically phrased in the following ways:
• The passage is written from the perspective of someone who
• Which choice best describes the structure of the first
paragraph or this passage?
• The statement in line x signals a shift from….
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Point of View
Point of view refers to the perspective that the
narrator holds in relation to the events of the story.

The three primary points of view are:

First person
Second person
Third person
Point of View
A first-person narrative is written from the
perspective of the narrator.

The repeated use of the word I indicates the first-person narration.

to thisof Viewon
The third person narrative is written from an objective or
impersonal perspective and describes other people or things
rather than narrator him or herself.

Though the passage is descriptive, it focuses on the events, not on

the narrator.
Point of View
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The second person narration uses the pronoun “you” to
immerse the reader.

The reader is addressed directly by using the pronoun you, or

indirectly or by giving commands.
Point of View
The shift occurs in the point of view when an important ideas is emphasized.
Where “they say” switches to “I say” that is the shift in the pronoun.


Which choice best describes the shift that occurs in line 20?
A) A criticism of a situation to a acknowledgment of its significance
B) a discussion of a problem to a description of a solution
C) A personal reaction to a discussion of a general concern .
D) a presentation of a claim to a questioning of that claim
Point of View
An author who is personally involved will use personal
pronouns, and an author who is not directly involved will use
impersonal pronouns.


This passage is written from the perspective of someone who is

A) actively involved in promoting traffic safety throughout urban areas
B) familiar with the activities of traffic engineers
C) an employee of the traffic control center in Boston City Hall
D) opposed to the intrusion of traffic engineers into everyday life
Point of View
The action of a passage written in the present is taking place as the author describes
it, while the action of the passage written in the past has already taken place.

Show both th
screenshot to a s

This passage is written from the perspective of

A) an adult recalling a memorable experience that occurred earlier in his adult
B) an adult recounting a significant childhood memory.
C) a child describing the development of a friendship.
“Alla the
narrator analyzing
year I that a story
have passed have told to himmy
not dimmed bymemory
an acquaintance.
of that first glorious
Paragraph and Passage Organization
Identify places where key ideas and arguments are introduced, as well
transition words that indicate the relationships of those ideas to one another.
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Organization of a paragraph can be answered by skimming for important
transitions within the paragraph
Organization of a passage can be answered by focusing on the end of the
introduction and the first sentence of the paragraph.

Which choice best describes the structure of the first paragraph (lines I -23)?
A) A comparison is presented and developed through supporting examples .
B) A principle is described, and an opposing principle is then introduced.
C) The strengths and weakness of several competing explanations are discussed.
D) A personal account of an experience is provided, followed by a reflection on that experience.
A Counterargument is what “they say”.

Real people who have argued the

opposite point of view, but the
objections could also be hypothetical.
Usage of Counterarguments:

Authors use counterarguments in order to strengthen their own

 Some counterarguments will appear near the beginning of a
passage - authors often begin with what "they say" - but they can
also show up closer to the end.
Some counterarguments will sometimes be presented in indirect

The author:
• Introduces potential drawback – regulatory uncertainty (main worry)
• Poses a rhetorical question
• Provides examples
• Makes his own

While The information that follows the
Whereas contradictor will correspond to what “I say”.
Effect of a Rhetorical Strategy
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Identifies the effect of a rhetorical strategy, such as
repetition or word choice.


What is the effect of the repetition of the word "we" in the fifth paragraph (lines 39-46)?
A) It evokes a sense of danger, calling attention to the dangers posed by political corruption.
B) It creates a sense of unity, emphasizing the connection between the author and the reader.
C) lt reveals a need for sociability, pointing out the risks of excessive solitude.
D) It underscores the longstanding nature of a problem faced by citizens in the United States.