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Chapter 3

Diagnostic and procedural


Dr Ibrahim Aqtam RN, PhD

Suffixes And Terminology
Suffixes are divided into to groups:

• Diagnostic Suffixes – Describe diagnoses

- Describe diseases conditions or their symptoms.

• Procedural Suffixes – Describe procedures

- Describe procedures used in patient care.
Diagnostic Suffixes
• -algia : condition of pain, pain
Arthralgia Pain in a joint
Otalgia Pain in an ear
Myalgia Pain in a muscle
Neuralgia Pain in nerve, nerve pain
• -emia : Blood condition
Leukemia Increase in number of cancerous WBCs
Septicemia Infection in the blood
Ischemia Deficiency of blood flow to a part of the body
Bacteremia Bacterial invasion of the blood (sepsis)
Uremia Accumulation of urea in the blood
• -ia: condition
Pneumonia Abnormal condition of inflamed lung, causing fluid and
material to collect in the air sacs of the lungs.

• -itis: inflammation
Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchial tubes
Esophagitis Inflammation of the esophagus
Laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein
Colitis Inflammation of the colon
Inflammation of the appendix (hangs from the colon in the
appendicitis lower right abdomen)
bursitis Inflammation of a small sac of fluid (bursa) near a joint
cellulitis Inflammation of soft tissue under the skin
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium)
epiglottitis Inflammation of the epiglottis
gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
myositis Inflammation of muscle (MYOS/O means muscle)
nephritis Inflammation of the kidney
osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone and bone marrow
otitis Inflammation of the ear
peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
pharyngitis Inflammation of the throat
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein with formation of clots
• -megaly: Enlargement
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver

• -oma: tumor, mass

Adenoma Benign tumor of glandular cells
Adenocarcinoma Cancerous tumor of glandular cells
Myoma Benign tumor of muscle
Myosarcoma Cancerous tumor of muscle
Myeloma Malignant tumor in the bone marrow
chondrosarcoma Cancer of cartilage tissue (CHONDR/O means cartilage)
Fibrosarcoma Cancer of fibrous tissue (FIBR/O means fibrous tissue)
leiomyosarcoma Cancer of visceral (attached to internal organs) muscle (LEIOMY/O
means visceral or “smooth” muscle)
Liposarcoma Cancer of fatty tissue (LIP/O means fat)
osteogenic sarcoma Cancer of bone (OSTE/O means bone)
rhabdomyosarcoma Cancer of skeletal (attached to bones) muscle (RHABDOMY/O means
skeletal muscle)

Hepatoma M a lig n a n t tu m o r o f th e liv e r (c o m m o n ly ca lle d h e p a to c e llu la r ca rc in o m a )

Lymphoma Malignant tumor of lymph nodes (previously called lymphosarcoma)
melanoma M a lig n a n t tu m o r o f p ig m e n te d (M E L A N /O m e a n s b la c k ) c e lls in th e sk in
mesothelioma Malignant tumor of pleural cells (membrane surrounding the lungs)
m u ltip le m y e lo m a Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
thymoma Malignant tumor of the thymus gland (located in the mediastinum)
• -osis: Condition, abnormal condition
Nephrosis Abnormal condition of the kidney
Necrosis Death of cells
Erythrocytosis Abnormal condition slight increase in number of RBCs
Leukocytosis Slight increase in number of normal WBCs

• -pathy: disease condition

Encephalopathy Disease of the brain
Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle
Nephropathy Disease of the kidney
Leukocytosis Vs Leukemia (P.114)
Leukocytosis— slight increase in normal white blood cells (WBCs)—is the body's
response to bacterial infection. Leukemia is a malignant condition mark dramatic
increase in cancerous WBCs.
adenopathy D is e a s e c o n d itio n o f ly m p h n o d e s (“ g la n d s ” ) ; ly m p h a d e n o p a th y
adrenopathy Disease condition of the adrenal glands
hepatopathy Disease condition of the liver
ly m p h a d e n o p a th y D is e a s e c o n d itio n o f th e ly m p h n o d e s (p r e v io u s ly c a lle d g la n d s )
myopathy Disease condition of muscles
neuropathy Disease condition of nerves
osteopathy Disease condition of bones
retinopathy Disease condition of the retina of the eye
Cardiomyopathy and myocardial
infarction ( MI )
• Cardiomyopathy is chronic (ongoing) disease of heart muscle with
inflammation and weakness.

• A myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute (sudden) condition involving

an area of heart muscle that has died as a result of ischemia. An MI is
a heart attack.
• -rrhea: flow, discharge
Rhinorrhea Discharge from the nose.
Menorrhea Normal menstural flow (menses)
• -rrhage or –rrhagia: excessive discharge of blood
Hemorrhage Bursting forth of blood
Menorrhagia Excessive bleeding during mensturation
• -sclerosis: Hardening
Arteriosclerosis hardening of arteries
Atherosclerosis is the most common type of arteriosclerosis. A
fatty plaque (atheroma) collects on the lining of arteries
Menorrhea Vs Menorrhagia
• Menorrhea is the normal discharge of blood and tissue from the lining
of the uterus.

• Menorrhagia is abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods. Chronic

menorrhagia can result in anemia. Menorrhagia is a common
complication of uterine myomas (fibroids).
• -uria: condition of urine
• Hematuria Bleeding into the urinary tract can cause this sign of
kidney disease or of disorders of the urinary and genital tracts.

• -al or –eal: Pertaining to

Peritoneal Pertaining to the peritoneum
Inguinal Pertaining to the groin
Renal Pertaining to the kidney
Esophageal Pertaining to the esophagus
Myocardial Pertaining to the muscle of the heart
• -ar: Pertaining to
• Vascular Pertaining to blood vessels
• -ary: Pertaining to
Axillary Pertaining to the armpit, or underarm
Mammary Pertaining to the breast
Pulmonary Pertaining to the lungs

• -ic: pertaining to
Chronic Lasting a long time.
Pelvic Pertaining to the bones of hip area
Procedural Suffixes
• -centesis: Surgical puncture to remove fluid.
Thoracentesis Surgical puncture of the chest to remove fluid.
Amniocentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from amnion.
Arthrocentesis Surgical puncture of the joint to remove fluid
for diagnosis or treatment.
• -ectomy: Removal, resection, excision
Tonsillectomy Removal of tonsils.
Hysterectomy Excision of the uterus.
adenectomy Excision of a gland
adenoidectomy Excision of the adenoids
appendectomy Excision of the appendix
colectomy Excision of the colon
gastrectomy Excision of the stomach
E x c i s io n o f a p i e c e o f b a c k b o n e ( la m i n a ) t o r e l i e v e p r e s s u r e o n n e r v e s f r o m a ( h e r n ia t i n g )
laminectomy d i s c k
myomectomy Excision of a muscle tumor (commonly a fibroid of the uterus)
p n e u m o n e c to m y E x c is io n o f lu n g tis s u e : to ta l p n e u m o n e c to m y (a n e n tir e lu n g ) o r lo b e c to m y (a s in g le lo b e )
prostatectomy Excision of the prostate gland
splenectomy Excision of the spleen
Oophorectomy Removal of an ovaries.
Salpingectomy Removal of fallopian tubes.
Cholecystectomy Removal of gallbladder.
Mastectomy Removal of the breast.
• -gram: Record
Myelogram x-ray record of spinal cord.
Mammogram x-ray record of the breast.
• -graphy: Process of recording
Electroencephalography Process of recording the electricity of the brain.
Mammography Process of making an x-ray recording of the breast.
Angiography Contrast material (such as iodine) is injected into an
artery or vein, and x-ray images are taken
• -lysis: separation, breakdown, destruction.
Dialysis Complete separation of wastes from the blood.

• -plasty: surgical repair, or surgical correction.

Mammoplasty surgical repair of the breast
Rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose.
Angioplasty surgical repair of blood vessels

• -scopy : process of visual examination.

Bronchoscopy process of visual examination of the bronchus.
Laparoscopy process of visual examination of the abdomen.
Laryngoscopy process of visual examination of the larynx.
• - stomy: opening.
Colostomy opening of the colon to the outside of the body.
Tracheostomy opening of the trachea to the outside of the body.
-therapy: treatment.
Radiotherapy treatment of diseases with x-rays.
Chemotherapy treatment with chemical drugs.
Cryotherapy treatment used cold temperature.
-tomy: incision, cutting into.
Craniotomy incision of the skull.
Laparotomy incision of the abdomen.
Phlebotomy incision of a vein.
Radiotherapy versus
• Radiotherapy (radiation therapy) is directed by a radiation oncologist,
a medical doctor specializing in treating cancer using radiation to kill
tumor cells.
• Radiology is the specialty of a radiologist, also a medical doctor, who
primarily diagnoses conditions using x-ray, magnetic wave, and
ultrasound technique.
• -TOMY versus –STOMY
• -TOMY indicates a temporary incision, as opposed to -STOMY, which
is a permanent or semipermanent opening.