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Industrial Control

Systems
BITS Pilani Pavan Kumar
Mechanical Engineering Department
Pilani Campus
Subheadings

1. Process Industries Vs Discrete Mfg Industries


1. Levels of automation in Two industries
2. Variables and Parameters in the Two Industries
2. Continuous Vs Discrete Control
1. Continuous Control Systems
2. Discrete Control Systems
3. Computer Process Control
1. Control Requirements
2. Capabilities of Computer Control
3. Forms of Computer Process Control

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus


BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Process Industries Vs Discrete Mfg.


Industries
Industrial Control is defined here as the
automatic regulation of unit operations and their
associated equipment as well as the integration
and coordination of the unit operations into the
larger production system.

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Process Industry Vs Discrete
Mfg. Industry
Type of Industry
1. Process Industry – perform their production
operations on amounts of materials, as they
tend to be liquids, gases, powders and similar
materials.
2. Discrete Industry – perform their operations on
quantities of materials, as they tend to be
discrete parts or products.

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Typical operations of Process
& Discrete Industry
Process Industry Discrete Industry
• Chemical reactions • Casting
• Comminution • Forging
• Deposition (Chem. vapor • Extrusion
deposition) • Machining
• Distillation • Mechanical assembly
• Mixing and blending of • Plastic molding
ingredients • Sheet metal stamping.
• Separation of ingredients

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


Levels of Automation in Two
Industries
Process Industry Discrete Industry

1. Device Level – sensors Sensors and actuators to


and actuators accomplish control of
comprising the basic machine actions.
control loops for unit
operations.
2. Regulatory Level – Machine level - production
Control of unit machines and
operations. workstations for discrete
part and product
manufacture.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


Process Industry Discrete Industry
3. Supervisory Level – Manufacturing cell level -
control and coordination control and coordination
of several of groups of machines
interconnected unit and supporting
operations that make up equipment working in
the total product. coordination, including
material handling
equipments.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


Process Industry Discrete Industry
4. Plant level – scheduling, Plant Level – scheduling,
tracking materials, tracking work-in-process,
equipment monitoring. routing parts through
machines, machine
utilization

5. Corporate level – MIS,


strategic planning, high- Corporate level – MIS,
level management of strategic planning, high
enterprise. level management of
enterprise.

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Variables and Parameters in
Two industries

In Process industry the variables and parameters


of interest tend to be continuous while in the
Discrete industry they tend to be discrete in
nature.

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Continuous variable
(parameter)
Continuous variable (parameter) – is one that is
uninterrupted as time proceeds, at least during the
manufacturing operation. A continuous variable is
considered to be analog, i.e. it can take on any value
within a certain range.

Production operations in Process and Discrete industry


are characterized by continuous variables e.g.
temperature, flow rate, pressure, velocity etc.

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Discrete variable (parameter)

Discrete variable (parameter) is one that can take on only


certain values within a given range. Most common is the
binary values (on/off, open/close).
examples:
binary: limit switch on/off, chuck closed/open, workpart
present/absent etc.
discrete other than binary: daily piece count, display of
digital tachometer, train of pulses to motor etc.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus


BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Continuous Vs Discrete Control


Continuous Vs Discrete
Control
Comparison Factor Continuous Control in PI Discrete Control in DI
Typical measures of Wt. measures, volume (liq & No. of parts or products
product output solid)
Typical quality Consistency, conc. Of solution, Dimensions, surface finish,
measures absence of contaminants, appearance, product
reliability

Variables and Temperature, volume flow rate, Position, velocity,


parameters pressure acceleration, force
Sensors Flow meters, thermocouples, Limit switches, photoelectric
pressure sensors sensors, strain gauge

Actuators Valves, heaters, pumps Switches, motors, pistons


Process time constraints Seconds, minutes, hours Second, less than a second

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Continuous Control Systems

1. Regulatory Control
2. Feedforward Control
3. Steady-state optimization
4. Adaptive Control
5. Online search strategies
6. Other specialized techniques (expert systems, decision
support systems etc)

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1. Regulatory Control

The objective is to maintain process performance at a


certain level or within a given tolerance band.

Ex. When the product attribute is measure of product


quality and it has to be kept within a specified range.

In many applications, Performance of Index is calculated


based on several output variables.

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Regulatory Control System

Input Output
Performance
parameters Variables
measurement
Process
Measured
Adjustments
variables
to input
parameters

Controller
Index of
performance
Performance target level

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2. Feedforward Control
System
To anticipate the effect of disturbances that will
upset the process by sensing them and
compensating for them before they can affect
the process.

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Feedforward Control System
Disturbance

Output Performance
Variables measures
Input
Parameters Process
Adjustment to Measured
input variables
parameters
Feedforward
Controller
control
elements Index of
Performance

Performance level
target

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Steady state Optimization
Control
It refers to a class of optimization techniques in
which the process exhibits the following
characteristics
1) Well defined Index of Performance
2) Relationship between the process variables and
index of performance is known.
3) The values of system parameters that optimize
the index of performance can be determined.

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3. Steady state (open loop)
Optimal Control
Output
Performance
Input Variables
measure
Parameters Process

Adjustment to
input
parameters
Index of performance
Controller

Algorithm to
determine optimum Mathematical model of
input parameters process and IP

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4. Adaptive Control System

Adaptive Control combines the feedback control


and optimal control by measuring the relevant
process variables during the operation and using
a control algorithm that attempts to optimize
index of performance.

Adaptive control is distinguished from feed- back


control and steady state optimal control by its
ability to cope with time varying environment.

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To evaluate its performance and respond accordingly, the
Adaptive Control system performs the following functions
1) Identification: the current value of index of performance
is determined from the process.
2) Decision : to decide what changes should be made to
improve performance. It is implemented using AC’s
programmed algorithm to change one or more input
parameters to process or alter internal parameters of
controller.
3) Modification : to implement the decision.

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Adaptive Control System

Output Performance
Input
Process Variables measure
Parameters

Adjustment to input
parameters
Modification

Decision
Measured Index of
Adaptive
variables Performance
Controller
Identification

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Discrete Control Systems

• The parameters and variables of the system


change in discrete moments in time.
• The parameters and variables are also discrete
in nature.
• Changes occur due to either change of state of
system (event driven change) or because
certain time has elapsed (time driven change).

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Discrete Control Systems

Event driven change:


it is executed by a controller in response to some event
that has caused the state of system to be altered. The
change can be to initiate an action or terminate an
operation.

Ex. Sensing of work part on worktable to start operations,


movement of parts along a conveyor belt past an optical
sensor to start the count etc.

Combinational logic control is used to control event driven


change.

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Discrete Control Systems

Time driven changes:


Executed by control system either at specific point of time
or after certain time lapse has occurred.

Ex. Heat treatment operation for certain duration of time,


chemical processes, cycle times in washing machines
etc

Sequential control is used to control Time driven changes.

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BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Computer Control System


Computer Control Systems

1. Control Requirements
2. Capabilities of Computer Control
3. Forms of Computer Process Control

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1. Control Requirements

1. Process initiated interrupts: The controller must be


able to respond the signals from the process.
Depending upon the relative importance of the signal,
the controller may need to interrupt execution of current
program to service the higher priority need of the
process.
2. Timer initiated actions: The controller must be capable
of executing certain actions at specified points in time.
Eg. Scanning sensor values at intervals, turning on
switches, motors, displaying performance date on
operator console etc

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3. Computer commands to the process : In addition to
receiving incoming signals from the process, the control
computer must send control signals to the process to
accomplish a corrective action.
4. System and program initiated events : They are the
events related to the computer system itself. A System
initiated event involves communication among
computers and peripherals. A program initiated event
occurs when a program calls for non-process related
action viz. printing, display etc.

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5. Operator initiated events : The control computer must
be able to accept input from the operating personnel.
Operator initiated events include
a. Entering new programs
b. Editing existing programs
c. Entering customer data, order number, or start up
instructions for next production.
d. Requesting process data
e. Calling for emergency stop.

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2. Capabilities of Computer
Control
The requirements of Computer control system can be met
if certain capabilities are provided to interact with
process and operator on real-time-basis

1. Pooling (Data Sampling)


2. Interlocks
3. Interrupt systems
4. Exception handling

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Pooling: refers to periodic sampling of data that indicates
the state of process. Also referred to as Sampling and
Scanning.
1. Pooling frequency – reciprocal of time interval between
data collection.
2. Pooling order - sequence in which the different data
collection points are sampled.
3. Pooling format - refers to the manner in which the
sampling procedure is designed.

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Interlocks: it is a safeguard mechanism for
coordinating the activities of two or more devices
and preventing one device from interfering with
the others.

In process control, they provide a means by


which controller is able to sequence the
activities in a work cell, ensuring that the actions
of one equipment are completed before the next
equipment begins its work.

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Types of Interlocks
1. Input Interlock – originates from an external device and
is sent to the controller. (No new signal is given till this
lock is broken)
Ex. Signal from the machine to the controller informing
the processing is done and the part may be unloaded.

2. Output interlock - signal sent from the controller to


some external device.
Ex. Signal to production machine to commence
operations after the workpart is loaded.

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Interrupts : It is a computer control feature that permits
execution of the current program to be suspended to
execute another program or subroutine in response to an
incoming signal indicating higher priority.

1. Internal interrupts - Generated by computer system


(timer-initiated events, system and program initiated
events)
2. External interrupts – external to the computer system
(process initiated events and operator inputs)

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Exception Handling : it is an event that is outside the
normal operation of the process or control system.

Events that invoke exception handling


• product quality problem
• Process variables outside normal range
• Shortage of raw materials or supplies necessary to
sustain process
• Hazardous conditions
• Controller malfunctions.

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3. Forms of Computer Process
Control
1. Computer process monitoring
2. Direct digital control (DDC)
3. Numerical control and robotics
4. Programmable logic control
5. Supervisory control
6. Distributed control systems and personal
computers

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1. Computer process
monitoring
Computer observes process and associated
equipment, collects and records data from the
operation
The computer does not directly control the process
Types of data collected:
– Process data – input parameters and output variables
– Equipment data – machine utilization, tool change
scheduling, diagnosis of malfunctions
– Product data – to satisfy government requirements,
e.g., pharmaceutical and medical

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(a) Process Monitoring, (b) Open-Loop
Control, and (c) Closed-Loop Control

(a)

(b)

(c)

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Process Monitoring Vs
Process Control
Process Control:

Here the computer regulates the process. This process


control can be carried out in either open loop where no
feedback to be collected from the process or in closed
loop where some form of feedback is required to ensure
that the control instructions have been properly carried
out.

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Direct Digital Control (DDC)

Form of computer process control in which certain


components in a conventional analog control
system are replaced by the digital computer
Applications: process industries
Accomplished on a time-shared, sampled-data
basis rather than continuously by dedicated
components
– Components remaining in DDC: sensors and
actuators
– Components replaced in DDC: analog controllers,
recording and display instruments, set point dials
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A Typical Analog Control Loop

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Components of a
Direct Digital Control System

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DDC (continued)

Originally seen as a more efficient means of


performing the same functions as analog
control
Additional opportunities became apparent in
DDC:
– More control options than traditional analog
control (PID control), e.g., combining discrete
and continuous control
– Integration and optimization of multiple loops
– Editing of control programs
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Numerical Control and
Robotics
Computer numerical control (CNC) – computer
directs a machine tool through a sequence of
processing steps defined by a program of
instructions
– Distinctive feature of NC – control of the position of a
tool relative to the object being processed
– Computations required to determine tool trajectory
Industrial robotics – manipulator joints are
controlled to move and orient end-of-arm
through a sequence of positions in the work
cycle
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Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC)
Microprocessor-based controller that executes a
program of instructions to implement logic,
sequencing, counting, and arithmetic functions
to control industrial machines and processes
Introduced around 1970 to replace
electromechanical relay controllers in discrete
product manufacturing
Today’s PLCs perform both discrete and
continuous control in both process industries
and discrete product industries

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Supervisory Control

In the process industries, supervisory control denotes a


control system that manages the activities of a number
of integrated unit operations to achieve certain economic
objectives
In discrete manufacturing, supervisory control is the control
system that directs and coordinates the activities of
several interacting pieces of equipment in a
manufacturing system
– Functions: efficient scheduling of production, tracking tool lives,
optimize operating parameters
Most closely associated with the process industries

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Supervisory Control Superimposed
on Process Level Control System

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Distributed Control Systems
(DCS)
Multiple microcomputers connected together
to share and distribute the process control
workload
Features:
– Multiple process control stations to control individual
loops and devices
– Central control room where supervisory control is
accomplished
– Local operator stations for redundancy
– Communications network (data highway)

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Distributed Control System

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DCS Advantages

• Can be installed in a very basic configuration,


then expanded and enhanced as needed in the
future
• Multiple computers facilitate parallel multitasking
• Redundancy due to multiple computers
• Control cabling is reduced compared to central
controller configuration
• Networking provides process information
throughout the enterprise for more efficient plant
and process management

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PCs in Process Control

Two categories of personal computer applications


in process control:
1. Operator interface – PC is interfaced to one or
more PLCs or other devices that directly control
the process
– PC performs certain monitoring and supervisory
functions, but does not directly control process
2. Direct control – PC is interfaced directly to the
process and controls its operations in real time
– Traditional thinking is that this is risky

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Enablers of PCs for Direct
Control
Widespread familiarity of workers with PCs
Availability of high performance PCs
– Cycle speeds of PCs now exceed those of PLCs
Open architecture philosophy in control system
design
– Hardware and software vendors comply with
standards that allow their products to be interoperable
PC operating systems that facilitate real-time
control and networking
PC industrial grade enclosures

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Enterprise-Wide
Integration of Factory Data
• Managers have direct access to factory operations
• Planners have most current data on production times
and rates for scheduling purposes
• Sales personnel can provide realistic delivery dates to
customers, based on current shop loading
• Order trackers can provide current status information to
inquiring customers
• QC can access quality issues from previous orders
• Accounting has most recent production cost data
• Production personnel can access product design data to
clarify ambiguities

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Enterprise-Wide PC-based
Distributed Control System

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