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# Lecture 9 - Flexure

February 4, 2002
CVEN 444
Lecture Goals
• Basic Concepts
• Rectangular Beams
• Balanced Beams
Example - Class
For the given beam find the maximum allowable
moment and the neutral axis fy = 40 ksi, fc = 3 ksi.
(1)If the reinforcement consists of 3 #6
(2)If the reinforcement consists of 3 #9
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Sections
Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Less concrete is needed to resist
the T and thereby moving the
neutral axis (NA) up.

T  As f y
C T
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Sections
Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Singly Reinforced 
 a1 
C  Cc ; M n  As f y  d  
 2
Doubly Reinforced 
 a2 
C  Cc  Cs ; M n  As f y  d  
 2
and  a2  a1 
Reasons for Providing
Compression Reinforcement
– Creep of concrete in compression zone
– transfer load to compression steel
– reduced stress in concrete
– less creep
Reasons for Providing Compression
Reinforcement
Effective of compression
reinforcement on sustained

## Fig 5-14 MacGregor

Reasons for Providing Compression
Reinforcement

• Increased Ductility
reduced stress block depth increase
in steel strain larger curvature are obtained.
Reasons for Providing Compression
Reinforcement
Effect of compression
reinforcement on
strength and ductility
of under reinforced
beams.
b

## Fig 5-15 MacGregor

Reasons for Providing Compression
Reinforcement

## • Change failure mode from compression to

tension. When bal, addition of As
strengthens.
Compression zone allows tension steel to
yield before crushing of concrete.
Effective reinforcement ratio = (’)
Reasons for Providing Compression
Reinforcement

• Eases in Fabrication
use corner bars to hold & anchor stirrups.
Effect of Compression Reinforcement

## Compare the strain distribution in two beams

with the same As
Effect of Compression Reinforcement
Section 1: Section 2:
T  As f s
T  As f s
T  Cs  Cc1
T  Cc1  0.85 f c ba  0.85 f c b1c1
 As f s  0.85 f c ba2
As f s
c1   As f s  0.85 f c b1c2
0.85 f c b1
As f s  As f s
c2 
0.85 f c b1
Addition of A’s strengthens compression zone so that less concrete
is needed to resist a given value of T. NA goes up (c2 <c1) and
s increases (s2 >s1).
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Four Possible Modes of Failure
• Under reinforced Failure
– ( Case 1 ) Compression and tension steel yields
– ( Case 2 ) Only tension steel yields
• Over reinforced Failure
– ( Case 3 ) Only compression steel yields
– ( Case 4 ) No yielding Concrete crushes
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections

Case 1
Assume As yields fs=fy

Cc  0.85 f c ba
T  As f y
Cs  As  f y  0.85 f c
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 1(cont.)
Using equilibrium and find a
As f y  As  f y  0.85 f c
T  Cc  Cs  a 
0.85 f cb
a
c
1
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 1 (cont.)
Check assumption

 c  d 
 s    cu
 c 
d c
s    cu
 c 
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 1 (cont.)
Confirm
fy
 s   y  ; s   y
Es
Calculate:
 a
M n  Cc  d    Cs  d  d 
 2
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 2
Assume A’s has not yielded
Cc  0.85 f c ba  0.85 f c b1c
T  As f y
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 2(cont.)
Using similar triangles

 c  d 
 s    cu
 
 c 
Cs  As  f s  0.85 f c ; where, f s  Es s
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Case 2 (cont.)
Equilibrium

T  Cc  Cs

## *Solve for NA, depth c (quadratic equation in terms of NA

depth c)
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections

Case 2 (cont.)
Check Assumptions
 s   y s   y

Calculate: a  1c
 a
M n  Cc  d    Cs  d  d 
 2