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Chapter 1:

Modern Network Security Threats

CCNA Security v2.0


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Securing Networks

Chapter Outline 1.2 Network Threats


1.3 Mitigating Threats
1.4 Summary

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Section 1.1:
Securing Networks
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
• Describe the current network security landscape.

• Explain how all types of networks need to be protected.

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Topic 1.1.1:
Current State of Affairs

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Networks Are Targets

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Drivers for Network Security
Common network security terms:
• Threat

• Vulnerability

• Mitigation
Cisco Security Intelligence Operations
• Risk

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Vectors of Network Attacks

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Data Loss
Vectors of data loss:
• Email/Webmail

• Unencrypted Devices

• Cloud Storage Devices

• Removable Media

• Hard Copy

• Improper Access Control

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Topic 1.1.2:
Network Topology Overview

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Campus Area Networks

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Small Office and Home Office Networks

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Wide Area Networks

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Data Center Networks
Outside perimeter security:
• On-premise security officers

• Fences and gates

• Continuous video surveillance

• Security breach alarms

Inside perimeter security:


• Electronic motion detectors

• Security traps

• Continuous video surveillance

• Biometric access and exit sensors

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Cloud and Virtual Networks
VM-specific threats: Components of a secure data center:
• Hyperjacking • Secure segmentation

• Instant On activation • Threat defense

• Antivirus storm • Visibility

The Evolving Network Border


Critical MDM functions for BYOD network:
• Data encryption

• PIN enforcement

• Data wipe

• Data loss prevention

• Jailbreak/root detection

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Section 1.2:
Network Threats
Upon completion of the section, you should be able to:
• Describe the evolution of network security.

• Describe the various types of attack tools used by hackers.

• Describe malware.

• Explain common network attacks.

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Topic 1.2.1:
Who is Hacking Our Networks?

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The Hacker & The Evolution of Hackers

Modern hacking titles:


• Script Kiddies

• Vulnerability Brokers

• Hacktivists

• Cyber Criminals

• State-Sponsored
Hackers

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Topic 1.2.2:
Hacker Tools

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Introduction of Attack Tools

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Evolution of Security Tools
Penetration testing tools:
• Password crackers • Forensic

• Wireless hacking • Debuggers

• Network scanning and hacking • Hacking operating systems

• Packet crafting • Encryption

• Packet sniffers • Vulnerability exploitation

• Rootkit detectors • Vulnerability Scanners

• Fuzzers to search vulnerabilities

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Categories of Attack Tools
Network hacking attacks:
• Eavesdropping

• Data modification

• IP address spoofing

• Password-based

• Denial-of-service

• Man-in-the-middle

• Compromised-key

• Sniffer

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Topic 1.2.3:
Malware

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Various Types of Malware

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Viruses

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Trojan Horse Classification
Classifications:
• Security software disabler

• Remote-access

• Data-sending

• Destructive

• Proxy

• FTP

• DoS

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Worms

Initial Code Red Worm Infection

Code Red Worm Infection 19 Hours


Later

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Worm Components
Components:
1.
• Enabling vulnerability Propagate
for 19 days

• Propagation mechanism

• Payload

4.
Code Red 2.
Repeat the
cycle
Worm Launch DoS
attack for
next 7 days
Propagation

3.
Stop and go
dormant for
a few days

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Other Malware

Ransomware Scareware
Spyware Phishing
Adware Rootkits

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Topic 1.2.4:
Common Network Attacks

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Types of Network Attacks

Data
Modification
Syn Flood

Smurf
Attack

Reconnaissance
Access
DoS

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Reconnaissance Attacks
• Initial query of a target

• Ping sweep of the target network

• Port scan of active IP addresses

• Vulnerability scanners

• Exploitation tools

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Access Attacks
A few reasons why hackers use access attacks:
• To retrieve data

• To gain access

• To escalate access privileges

A few types of access attacks include:


• Password

• Trust exploitation

• Port redirection

• Man-in-the-middle

• Buffer overflow

• IP, MAC, DHCP spoofing

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Social Engineering Attacks
• Pretexting

• Phishing

• Spearphishing

• Spam

• Tailgating

• Something for Something

• Baiting

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Denial of Service Attacks

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DDoS Attacks
1. Hacker builds a network of infected machines
• A network of infected hosts is called a botnet.
• The compromised computers are called zombies.
• Zombies are controlled by handler systems.

2. Zombie computers continue to scan and infect more targets


3. Hacker instructs handler system to make the botnet of zombies
carry out the DDoS attack

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Section 1.3 Mitigating Threats
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to::
• Describe methods and resources to protect the networks.

• Describe a collection of domains for network security.

• Explain the purpose of the Cisco SecureX Architecture.

• Describe the techniques used to mitigate common network attacks.

• Explain how to secure the three functional areas of Cisco routers and switches.

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Topic 1.3.1:
Defending the Network

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Network Security Professionals

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Network Security Organizations

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Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability

Confidentiality:
Uses encryption to
encrypt and hide
data.

Components
of
Availability:
Cryptography
Integrity:
Assures data is
accessible. Uses hashing
algorithms to
Guaranteed by
ensure data is
network hardening
unaltered during
mechanisms and
operation.
backup systems.

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Topic 1.3.2:
Domains of Network Security

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Network Security Domains
• Risk assessment

• Security policy

• Organization of information security

• Asset management

• Human resources security

• Physical and environmental security

• Communications and operations management

• Information systems acquisition, development, and maintenance

• Access control

• Information security incident management

• Business continuity management

• Compliance

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Network Security Policy

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Network Security Policy Objectives

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Topic 1.3.3:
Introducing the Cisco SecureX Architecture

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The Security Artichoke

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Evolution of Network Security Tools

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SecureX Product Families

Server Edge
and Branch

Secure Data Secure


Center and Email and
Virtualization
Secure Web

Secure Secure
Access Mobility

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SecureX Security Technology
Cisco SecureX Architecture:
• Scanning engines

• Delivery mechanisms

• Security intelligence operations (SIO)

• Policy management consoles

• Next-generation endpoint

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Centralized Context-Aware Network Scanning Element
Defines security policies based on five parameters:
• Type of device being used for access

• Person’s identity

• Application in use

• Location

• Time of access

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Cisco Security Intelligence Operations

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Cisco Security Intelligence Operations (cont.)

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Topic 1.3.4:
Mitigating Common Network Threats

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Defending the Network
Best practices:
• Develop a written security policy.

• Educate employees about the risks of social engineering, and develop strategies to
validate identities over the phone, via email, or in person.
• Control physical access to systems.

• Use strong passwords and change them often.

• Encrypt and password-protect sensitive data.

• Implement security hardware and software.

• Perform backups and test the backed up files on a regular basis.

• Shut down unnecessary services and ports.

• Keep patches up-to-date by installing them weekly or daily to prevent buffer


overflow and privilege escalation attacks.
• Perform security audits to test the network.

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Mitigating Malware

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Mitigating Worms

Containment

Inoculation Quarantine

Treatment

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Mitigating Reconnaissance Attacks

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Mitigating Access Attacks

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Mitigating DoS Attacks

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Topic 1.3.5:
Cisco Network Foundation Protection Framework

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NFP Framework

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Securing the Control Plane

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Securing the Management Plane

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Securing the Data Plane

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Section 1.4:
Summary
Chapter Objectives:
• Explain network security.

• Describe various types of threats and attacks.

• Explain tools and procedures to mitigate the effects of malware and common
network attacks.

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Thank you.
Instructor Resources

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