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Introduction to Control Systems-Types

of Control Systems with examples

Dr V S Krushnasamy
Associate Professor
Department of IT
System

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Input

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Output

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Control

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Control System

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Control System

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Difference Between System and Control
System

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Difference Between System and Control
System

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Fan :Can’t Say System

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Fan :Can be a System

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Fan can be a Control System

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Control System

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I.Classification of Control System

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Open Loop Control System

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OLCS Example

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OLCS Example

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OLCS Example

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OLCS Example

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OLCS Example

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Advantages of OLCS

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Disadvantages of OLCS

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Closed Loop Control System

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Block Diagram of Closed Loop Control System

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Closed Loop Control System

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Closed Loop Control System
• Control system in which the output has an
effect on the input quantity in such a manner
that the input quantity will adjust itself based
on the output generated is called CLCS.
• Open loop control system can be converted in
to Closed Loop control system by providing a
feedback.

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Closed Loop Control System Examples

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Advantages of CLCS

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Disadvantages of CLCS

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OLCS Vs CLCS

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OLCS Vs CLCS

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OLCS Vs CLCS

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II. Classification of Control System

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Linear Control System

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Non Linear Control System

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Difference Between Linear and Nonlinear
Control System

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III. Classification of Control System

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Time Varying / In-varying Control System

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Time Varying / In-varying Control System

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IV. Classification of Control System

Classification of Control System

Continuous System Discrete System

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Continuous Control System
• A system whose inputs and outputs are
capable of changing at any instant of time also
known as continuous control system.

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Discrete Control system
• In discrete control system the signals appear
at discrete intervals of time.
• The components connected to the system
respond only to the discrete signals &variables
appears at discrete intervals.

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Discrete Control system

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Advantages of Discrete over Analog
• Power requirement in case of discrete or digital system is
very less compared to analog control systems.
• Digital system has higher rate of accuracy and can
perform various complex computations easily compared
to analog systems.
• Reliability of digital system is more as compared to analog
systems. They also available in small and compact size.
• Losses in case of discrete systems are less as compared to
analog systems in general.
• Digital systems can handle nonlinear control systems
more effectively than analog systems.
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V. Classification of Control System

Classification of Control System

SISO MIMO
(Single Input Single Output (Multiple Input Multiple
Control System) Output Control System)

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SISO(Single Input Single Output)
• If single input variable is applied to the system
and the output variable is also single then the
system is called SISO system.
• Examples
– Voltage Regulators
– Servo Systems
– Temperature Controller

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MIMO(Multiple Input and Multiple Output)

• If the input and output variables are more


than one than the system is called MIMO.

• Example : Boiler
– Steam pressure,Temperature,Water level are to be
controlled.

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MIMO(Multiple Input and Multiple Output)

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Stochastic and Deterministic Systems
• Stochastic control deals with uncertainty in the
model(response to input, external disturbance).
• In typical stochastic control problems, it is assumed
that there exist random noise and disturbances in
the model and controller, and the control design
must taken into account these random variations.
• Example
1.Queuing models
2.Markov Chains
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Deterministic Control System
• Algorithm ,Model, Procedure, Process etc.,
Whose resulting behavior is entirely
determined by its initial state and input ,and
which is not random or stochastic.
• Example
1.Linear Programming
2.Time Table

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Lumped Vs Distributed Control System

• The elements building a lumped system are thought of


being concentrated at singular points in space. The classical
example is an electrical circuit with passive elements like
resistor, inductance and capacitor. The physical quantities
current and voltage are functions of time (only). E. g. the
current at a capacitor with capacity C is given by

i(t)=C dv/dt

Where C is a constant (and so are R and L). This leads to


ordinary differential equations.
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Lumped (DE)Vs Distributed(PDE) Control
System
• In contrast, the elements in distributed systems are
thought of being distributed in space, so that
physical quantities depend on both time and space.
• The classical example is the electrical line where
inductance, capacity and resistance are not
constant but functions of length x. This leads to
partial derivatives of i(t,x) and v(t,x) in t and x.
• They are not felt simultaneously. Not Physically
separable.

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Causal Vs Non-Causal

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To Remember Introduction to Control System

1.Consider a kitchen mixer unit to which an electric current is provided as input and
rotational speed of the speed blade is the output.Then,if one wants to obtain a
specific rotation speed, then one is solving the problem of
(a) Synthesis
(b)Prediction
(c) Control
(d)Estimation

Ans ?

2.In a typical control system layout, the element that takes the error signal as its input
and provides the system input as its output is called as the
(a) Plant
(b)Controller
(c)Actuator
(d)Sensor
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To Remember Introduction to Control System

3.The dynamics o f the element that takes the output of the


controller and realizes the input to the system is called as
(a)Plant dynamics
(b)Controller dynamics
(c) Sensor dynamics
(d)Actuator dynamics
4.In a dynamic system, all variables are functions of
(a)time
(b)space
(c) time AND space
(d) time OR space
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