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Integrated Switchgear

Training Course Level 1


Solutions
© PTHVP - Page 1


General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments

Applications
ABB PTHVP – 2, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Standards

  
Goal for this part of Training Course
 To be familiar with the Integrated Switchgear Modules
…and to be able to offer them
 To be able to use the presentation material from the
…CD
 To be familiar with the web based tools for design …
and quotation
ABB PTHVP – 3, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


The basic Compact modular concept
 Integrate standard & well proven ABB switchgear
apparatus to a type-tested and pre-engineered module.

LTB & HPL


standard breaker

IMB, CPA & CPB


standard IT

PEXLIM
ABB PTHVP – 4, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

standard SA

Modular structure
Type tested and pre-engineered
and bus bar
modular building block


A modular step-by-step Concept 72-300 kV
Identically the same standard and well proven LTB/HPL
Circuit Breaker is used in all application
ABB PTHVP – 5, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Indoor applications
Compact in-door with-drawable breakers

72 – 170 kV
ABB PTHVP – 6, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments

Applications
ABB PTHVP – 7, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Standards


Why do we have switchgear

Lines
 To connect transmission lines,
cables and transformers with
each other in a substation
 To disconnect and isolate if
required (e.g. a short-circuit)

 To measure voltage and current


(e.g. for relay protection and
SCADA)
 To limit high voltage surges
ABB PTHVP – 8, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

(e.g. from lightning strokes)

Transformers


What are the real requirements

 Maximum availability  Lowest possible


= Minimized interruptions maintenace need

 Maximum safety  Reduced nos. of


= Minimized risk for personnel entrances
equipment and environment

 Maximum economy  Lowest LCA


ABB PTHVP – 9, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

= Minimized costs for design,


construction, operation,
maintenance and outages


Substation Availability
 The probability that power is available at a certain

point in the substation, e.g. at the MV bus or an


outgoing line.

Factors influing substation availability


- Equipment failure rate and repair time.
- Need and time for maintenance of equipment.
- Availability of incoming power to the substation.
- Substation configuration, i.e., busbar schemes.
© ABB PTHVP – 10, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Most critical components to the availability


- Equipment connected directly to the busbar such as
disconnectors.

Comparing old and new technology
Air blast with Oil minimum with HPL B1 for 300 kV with
10 breaking units 4 breaking units one breaking unit
Failure and maintenance rate

Bulk Oil Breakers


© ABB PTHVP – 11, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Air blast Breakers


Disconnectors with open contacts
Minimum Oil breakers
SF6 Breakers

1950 2000

Substation Availability

How to achieve increased availability?

Conventional AIS
 Multiple bus bars
 Many disconnectors
 Large separation distances provide easy access for maintenance work

Compact and Combined


 Conventional disconnectors are eliminated
 Maintenance-free bus bar connections with low failure rate
© ABB PTHVP – 12, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

 Minimised maintenance requirements for remaining parts


 Simplified bus bar schemes are possible


Substation Availability
Example:
Unavailability of busbar and bay - caused by maintenance

Conventional COMPACT COMBINED


AIS equipment: switching module: disconn breaker:

disconnector fixed contact

circuit breaker withdrawable disconn circuit breaker


circuit breaker
disconnector
fixed contact
busbar busba busbar
r
© ABB PTHVP – 13, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Mean unavailability Mean unavailability Mean unavailability


(hours/year) (hours/year) (hours/year)
busbar bay busbar bay busbar bay

2 6 ~0 0,2 - 2 2 2


Substation Availability
Mean unavailability due to maintenance

Apparatus and modules Duration Period Unavailability


For 145 kV hours years hours/year

Circuit Breakerd SF6 10 15 0,7


Circuit Breakera Oil 20 6 3,3
Combined
Disconnecting Circuit Breaker 10 15 0,7 Module

Disconnectord 4 5 0,8
Compact
Module
© ABB PTHVP – 14, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Switching Module
- withdrawable partd 1 ; 10 15 0,07b ; 0,7c
- fixed contactsd - - ~0
a
utility statistics
b
replacement module


c
maintenance on site
d
ABB standard
Substation Availability
Mean unavailability due to failure

Apparatus and modules Duration Frequency


For 145 kV hours 1/100 years

Circuit Breaker d SF6 72 0,09


Circuit Breaker a Oil 72 0,3
Combined
Disconnecting Circuit Breaker 72 0,09 Module

Disconnectord 8 0,12
© ABB PTHVP – 15, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Compact
Switching Module Module
- withdrawable partd 1 ; 24 0,2
- fixed contactsd 8 0,012
a
utility statistics


b
replacement module
c
maintenance on site
d
ABB standard
New equipment allows simplified arrangements
Example: Traditional double
busbar layout may be replaced
by sectionalized single busbar
Used together, LTB Compact
and LTB Combined
give the optimal solution
Compact switching
L1 L2 L3 L4 module LTB Compact
Disconnecting circuit-
breaker LTB Combined
L1 L2 L3 L4
© ABB PTHVP – 16, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

T1 T2
T1 T2


Substation Availability
“The disconnector Paradox”
The more disconnectors installed, the higher unavailability rate

Traditional Traditional Double Bus


Possible
Single Bus with by-pass
Compact

X X
© ABB PTHVP – 17, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

X X

Disconnectors to maintain that can fail



Substation Availability
Conclusion
Unavailability = MTTR/MTBF + MTTM/MTBM
The lowest unavailability (and the highest availability) is achieved
when the failure frequency, maintenance frequency, time to repair
and time to maintain all are minimized
Modern SF6 circuit breakers has improved tenfold compared to
old oil/airblast breakers…but the disconnectors are basically the
same as 40 years ago!
© ABB PTHVP – 18, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Replacing conventional disconnectors with a maintenance free


and none exposed disconnecting function will improve reliability


General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments

Applications
© ABB PTHVP – 19, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Standards


Conventional Circuit Breaker
© ABB PTHVP – 20, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

LTB 170 D HPL 550B2


3 pole 1 of 3poles

Conventional outdoor design

• Busbar

• Disconnector 1

• Circuit Breaker
Bus bar
• Disconnector 2

• Current
Transformer

• Voltage
Transformer Disconnectors , especially directly connected to
the bus are the most critical primary component
• Earthing Switch for the availability!
© ABB PTHVP – 21, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

• Surge Arrestor The auxiliary contacts from the disconnectors


which are required for the interlocking system are
the most critical secondary components for the
reliability!


How can Compact improve substation availability?

• Conventional
disconnectors are eliminated
• Busbar connections require
no maintenance work
• All maintenance is carried
out on withdrawn modules

Hence:
• The busbars need not be
de-energized for
maintenance No regular maintenance of
© ABB PTHVP – 22, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

stationary disconnector contacts:


- no moving parts
- silver plated copper
- separate contact zones for
making/breaking and for stationary
closed position

Compact Switching Module 72 – 300 kV

 LTB or HPL Circuit Breaker 72 - 300 kV


 Plug-in/Draw-out motorised truck tested
for 2000 disconnection operations
 Self-cleaning and maintenance free fixed
contacts (tested for 10 000 operations)

Options
 Busbar
 CT Type IMB,
© ABB PTHVP – 23, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

 CVT, SA and Earthing Switch


integrated or separate Line Entrance
Module


Compact Switching Module 360 – 550 kV

 HPL Circuit Breaker 360 - 550 kV


 Pantograph Disconnector on one or
both sides
 Self-cleaning and maintenance free
fixed contacts
Options
 CT Type IMB,
 CVT, SA and Earthing Switch integrated or
separate Line Entrance Module
 Digital Optical CT and VT
© ABB PTHVP – 24, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Compact Switching Module

Conventional
Compact Module

• Busbar

• Disconnector 1

• Circuit Breaker

• Disconnector 2

• Current
Transformer

• Voltage
© ABB PTHVP – 25, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Transformer

• Earthing Switch

• Surge Arrestor


Compact with maintenance free contacts

Corona protection

Moving contact is
flexible allowing
+/- 20 mm
© ABB PTHVP – 26, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Fixed contact (toward bus and line) is maintenance free


with extremely low failure probability. It is type tested as
part of module for 2000 operation and mechanically
tested for 10 000 operations.

Maintenance free contacts

Fixed maintenance free contact Moving contacts with flexible fingers


towards bus and line/transformer (+/- 20 mm)
(Self cleaning)

Open
© ABB PTHVP – 27, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Closed


How can Combined improve substation availability?

COMBINED disconnecting
circuit-breaker, DCB:

-The DCB permits simple S/S


solutions
- The DCB is directly connected
to the busbar. This affects
the availability during
maintenance or repair
© ABB PTHVP – 28, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Combined Switching Module

 Combined Disconnecting Circuit Breaker


LTB or HPL., 72 – 420 kV
 Integrated Earthing Switch
 Safe Interlocking System

Options
 Busbar
 CT type IMB
 Separate Line Entrance Module
© ABB PTHVP – 29, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Combined Switching Modules

Visual Indication, On/Off


© ABB PTHVP – 30, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Combined Switching Modules
Key interlocking of Disconnecting Circuit Breaker and Earthing Switch with
manual operating mechanism
3a. Insert key B
3b. Close ES
© ABB PTHVP – 31, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

0. Open Breaker
1a. Electrical and
mechanical interlocking 2a. Insert key A
of closing latch 2b. Mechanical interlocking


1b. Remove key A of disconnecting breaker
2c. Remove key B
Combined Switching Modules
Key interlocking of Disconnecting Circuit Breaker and Earthing Switch with
motor operated mechanism
© ABB PTHVP – 32, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

0. Open Breaker 2a. Close ES which automatically gives


1a. Electrical and mechanical interlocking of breaker pull road
mechanical interlocking in all three phases
of closing latch 2b. Insert key A and electrically interlock ES
1b. Remove key A

Combined Switching Module
Visual Indication, Earthing Switch Position
© ABB PTHVP – 33, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

On-Closed/Off-Open and live Off-Open and earthed 


Combined Switching Module

Conventional
Combined Module

• Busbar

• Disconnector 1

• Circuit Breaker

• Disconnector 2

• Current
Transformer

• Voltage
© ABB PTHVP – 34, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Transformer

• Earthing Switch

• Surge Arrestor


Combined Switching Modules

 Utilising the well proven LTB or HPL SF6 circuit breaker in composite
insulation and with integrated earthing switch

 Designed and tested as both circuit breaker and disconnector according to


IEC and ANSI standards

 Designed with safe interlocking system and clear indications

 Optional conventional current transformers


© ABB PTHVP – 35, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Combined Switching Modules

 To simplify the design and improve the availability of substations using


pre-tested & multi-functional modules without conventional disconnectors

 To optimise the life cycle economy by reducing the installation, operation


and maintenance time & cost

 To enhance personnel and equipment safety by minimizing exposed


connections and replacing porcelain with composite insulation

 To reduce environmental impact with minimum use of space and material


© ABB PTHVP – 36, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


The Compact Modular Family
kV Type of operation Insulation Level Breaking Current Rated Current

(Single/Three Phase) (kV) (kA) (A)

LTB 145 D1 (123) 3 650 40 3150

245 E1 1 1050 50 4000

HPL 245B1 1 1050 50 4000

300 B1 1 1050 (+170) 50 4000

420 B2 1 1425 63 4000

550 B2 1 1550 63 4000

*FREQ. 50/60 Hz TEMP. +40°C / -30°C


Options:
© ABB PTHVP – 37, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

i) SWITCHSYNC RELAY FOR SYNCHRONIZING


CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATION DURING SWITCHING OF
CAPACITOR BANKS, SHUNT REACTORS,
POWER TRANSFORMERS AND LONG LINES.

ii) POLYMERIC INSULATORS

iii) OPERATION DOWN TO -40 AND -50°C


WITH MIXED GAS (WHICH REDUCE THE
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT RATING).


The Combined Modular Family
kV Type of operation Insulation level Breaking Current Rated Current
(Single/Three Phase) (kV) (kA) (A)

LTB 145 D1/B 3 650 40 3150

HPL 145 B1 1/3 650 50 4000

170 B1 1/3 750 50 4000

245 B1 1/3 1050 50 5000

300 B1 1/3 1050 (+170) 50 5000

420 B2 1 1425 50 4000

Options: *FREQ. 50/60 Hz TEMP. +40°C / -30°C


© ABB PTHVP – 38, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

i) SWITCHSYNC RELAY FOR SYNCHRONIZING


CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATION DURING SWITCHING OF
CAPACITOR BANKS, SHUNT REACTORS,
POWER TRANSFORMERS AND LONG LINES.

ii) OPERATION DOWN TO -40 AND -50°C


WITH MIXED GAS (WHICH REDUCE THE
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT RATING).

iii) CT BRACKETS UP TO 170 kV

  
General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments

Applications
© ABB PTHVP – 39, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Standards


Sales Arguments
 Life cycle cost
 Availability
 Space saving
 Minimum maintenance
 Fast installation
© ABB PTHVP – 40, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Sales Arguments
Space requirement
Integrated
Conventional 145 kV station Switchgear Modules

1000 m2 120 m2

30 m
40 m
© ABB PTHVP – 41, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

4m


25 m
Sales Arguments

Cost comparison
Installation

Summary of cost in kUSD Conventional Combined Compact


Equipment 400 328,0 445
Project management 60 22,0 17
Primary engineering 17,6 6,8 2
Secondary engineering 11,6 2,4 2,4
Land & preparation 89,1 40,5 32,4
Foundations 36 13,2 10,2
© ABB PTHVP – 42, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Erection 42 17,6 22,1


Installation 44 15,0 11
Cabling to control room 0 0,0 0,0
Other (Bus structures etc.) 30 0,0 0,0
Total estimated installed cost 730,3 445,5 542,1


Sales Arguments

Cost comparison
Installation

Conventional Combined Compact

Number of foundations 72 18 17
Approximate cost kUSD 33 11 11
© ABB PTHVP – 43, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Foundation costs are not included in previous slide


The numbers and costs above include the complete nos. of foundations for the
station. I.e. Foundations for CT, VT, SA and ES are included


Sales Arguments

Cost comparison
Unavailability

S umm ary of unavailability cost,


10 years in kU S D C o nventional C om bined C om pact
Loss of 1 through going load 134,7 62,9 13,2
Loss of 2 through going load 70,4 62,9 0,2
© ABB PTHVP – 44, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

To tal un availability cost 205,1 125,8 13,4


Sales Arguments

Cost comparison
Service

Summary of service cost,


10 years Conventional Combined Compact
Maintenance cost 90,7 26,7 10,7
Repair cost 38,4 19,2 9,8
Total service cost 129,1 45,9 20,5
© ABB PTHVP – 45, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Grand Total Life Cycle


Cost (10 years) 1065 617 576


Sales Arguments
Integrated Switchgear Modules Features and Benefits

Pre-manufactured multi-function Fast and simple installation at


module minimum area

Integrated SF6 breaker and Reduced operating and


disconnector function maintenance cost

Pollution & explosion resistant Maximum personnel and


composite (polymer) insulation equipment safety
(Standard for Combined)

Simplified station layout with no Maintained or improved


© ABB PTHVP – 46, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

disconnectors availability with lower cost

Indoor version Available An alternative in Urban


applications


Sales Arguments
Evaluation

Conventional
Importance

Combined

Compact

XXX
Evaluation sheet
Low -
Value 1-10 High Rate Tot Rate Tot Rate Tot Rate Tot
1. Cost
1.1 Equipment Cost 2 4 8 4 8 2 4 0 0
1.2 Installed Cost 4 2 8 5 20 3 12 0 0
Distribution 1.3 Life Cycle Cost 4 1 4 4 16 5 20 0 0
Sub Total Cost Rating 20 44 36 0
2. Availability
2.1 At Distribution 0 1 0 3 0 6 0 0 0
2.2 At Transmission 0 1 0 3 0 6 0 0 0
2.3 Both T&D 10 1 10 3 30 6 60 0 0
Sub Total Availability Rating 10 30 60
3 Environment
Transmission 3.1Space 4 1 4 3 12 6 24 0 0
3.2 Material 3 1 3 6 18 3 9 0 0
3.3 Safety 3 3 9 3 9 4 12 0 0
Sub Total Environment Rating 16 39 45 0
4 Flexibility
© ABB PTHVP – 47, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

4.1 Operation & Maintenance 4 2 8 3 12 5 20 0 0


Both 4.2 Retrofit 3 4 12 4 12 2 6 0 0
4.3 Extension 3 2 6 4 12 4 12 0 0
Sub Total Flexibility Rating 26 36 38 0
Grand Total 72 149 179 0


General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments
© ABB PTHVP – 48, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Applications

Standards


Applications
Switchgear modules can be used in any substation application
 Compact modules
 Gives the highest availability
 Suitable for applications with high operating frequency
(Capacitor and reactor)
 Excellent for extension of existing S/S.
Combined modules
 Cost optimised solution for distribution S/S
© ABB PTHVP – 49, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

 Shortest erection time


 Minimum of space


Applications

Pitfalls
 New concept not known by customer
 Diverge from specification
 Limited competition
 Concept backbited by competitors
 Possibilities
 Extensive Reference List
© ABB PTHVP – 50, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

 Limited competition
Top-down sales using LCC as argument
 Increased business opportunities for all HV-apparatus


Applications

Swedish Power Grid

Hemsjö 420 kV Sustation


© ABB PTHVP – 51, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Line Transf Line Cap. Line Line Cap. Cap.

14 HPL Combined Switching modules 420 kV, 4000 A, 31,5 kA


Applications

ESBI Alberta Canada

260 kV Substation

12 HPL Compact Switching


Modules

300 kV, 4000 A, 40 kA

Breaker-and-a-half system
© ABB PTHVP – 52, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Applications
Norsk Hydro, Norway
145 kV Industrial substation for an aluminium smelting plant

9 objects Sectionaliser 7 objects


© ABB PTHVP – 53, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

In total 34 Combined in a double busbar system

LTB Combined Switchgear modules 145 kV, 3150 A, 40 kA


Applications
PS-1 Standard for Productified Substations
145 kV Distribution Substation
© ABB PTHVP – 54, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

LTB Combined Switchgear modules 145 kV, 3150 A, 40 kA


General

Theory

Technical Design

Sales Arguments

Applications
© ABB PTHVP – 55, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Standards


Standards
 Apparatus included in the Switchgear Modules are
designed and tested according to their specific standards
 The Compact module withdrawing function fulfils the
Disconnector standard IEC 62271-102 and ANSI C37.32
 The Disconnecting Circuit Breaker Combined fulfils the
Circuit Breaker standard IEC 62271-100 and
ANSI C37.09 and the Disconnector standard
IEC 62271-102 and ANSI C37.32
© ABB PTHVP – 56, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1


Standards
Combined Disconnecting circuit-breaker Complies with
IEC requirements
Isolating distance requirements - IEC

IEC 62271-102, Clause 5.102:


“For reasons of safety, disconnectors shall be designed in a way that no
dangerous leakage current can pass from the terminals of one side to any of
the terminals of the other side of the disconnector.
This safety requirement is met when any leakage current is led away to earth
by a reliable earth connection or when the insulation involved is effectively
protected against pollution in service.”
© ABB PTHVP – 57, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

Design solution, disconnecting circuit-breaker


1. Leakage current minimised by means of polymeric insulators
2. Any leakage current is lead away to earth when earthed with the integrated
earthing switch


Standards

Additional Type Testing of Combined


Reliability, Safety & Performance of COMBINED supported by EXHAUSTIVE
Accelerated Ageing Tests

ABB Test Series on one unit, e.g. HPL 245B1 (50kA)


1. 10,000 operation mechanical endurance
2. No-load test prior to fault-breaking tests
3. 74 x T10 (10%=5kA) breaking tests
4. No-load test
5. 18 x T30 (30%=15kA) breaking tests
© ABB PTHVP – 58, 2002-01-18, MT, Level1

6. No-load test
7. 3 x L75 (75%=37.5kA) SLF breaking tests (high RRRV)
8. Dielectric Impulse Withstand Tests

