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 distinguishes three
categories of human needs that
influence worker͛s behaviour,
 a  - physiological and safety
needs (such as hunger, thirst and sex)

   - social and external

esteem (such as involvement with family,
friends, co-workers and employers)

 !"#  - internal esteem and self

actualization (such as desires to be creative,
productive and to complete meaningful tasks)

ahis group of needs is concerned with providing

the basic requirements for material existence,
such as physiological and safety needs. ahis need
is satisfied by money earned in a job so that one
may buy food, shelter, clothing, etc.
ü  | 

ahis group of needs centers upon the desire to

establish and maintain interpersonal relationships.
Since people normally spend approximately half of
their waking hours on the job, this need is normally
satisfied to some degree by their co-workers.

ahese needs refer to an intrinsic desire for

personal development. A person's job, career, or
profession provides significant satisfaction of
growth needs.
$ %



& Ô     
. Managers must
recognize that an employee has multiple
needs to satisfy simultaneously. According to
the ERG theory, focusing exclusively on one
need at a time will not effectively motivate.
m (  )
 *  '

n addition, the ERG theory acknowledges that if a

higher level need remains unfulfilled, the person
may regress to lower level needs that appear 

ahis frustration-regression principle impacts

workplace motivation. For example, if growth
opportunities are not provided to employees, they
may regress to relatedness needs, and socialize
more with co-workers.
f management can recognize these
conditions early, steps can be taken to satisfy
the frustrated needs until the subordinate is
able to pursue growth again.
** +*

Yike Maslow's model, the ERG motivation is
hierarchical, and creates a pyramid or triangle
appearance. Existence needs motivate at a more
fundamental level than relatedness needs, which, in
turn supercedes growth needs.
External Esteem Needs

nternal Esteem Needs/
Social Needs

Safety Needs / Physiological Needs

* &* +*


§Alderfers ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may
motivate at the same time. A lower motivator need not be substantially
satisfied before one can move onto higher motivators.

§ahe ERG theory also accounts for differences in need preferences

between cultures better than Maslow's Need Hierarchy; the order of
needs can be different for different people. ahis    accounts for a
wider range of observed behaviors. For example, it can explain the
"starving artist" who may place growth needs above those of existence.

§ahe ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher-order need is frustrated,

an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order
need which appears easier to satisfy. ahis is known as the 


‰. Alderfer, C. (‰  ). An Empirical aest of a New aheory of Human Needs. Ô

 , vol. 4, pp. ‰42 - ‰.

2. Bootzin, R., Yoftus, E., Zajonc, R., Hall, E. (‰ ).      ! "
. New York:
Random House. Fifth Edition.

. Herzberg, F. (‰ ).#   $

  %. Cleveland: World Publishing Co.
Maslow, A. (‰ ).        . (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

4. Maslow, A. (‰ ). %    (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

. Maslow, A. (‰ ‰).  & '  

. New York: McGraw-Hill.

. McGregor, D. (‰ ).     & ! (   ) 
 )   * Massachusetts nstitute of aechnology
(April , ‰ ).

. Porter, Y. & Yawler, E. (‰ ).% !

     + "  ,

- .+ . /01234 #  % $ 5 6 #  7 )