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Organizational Behavior:

Introduction
Organization as a Social Phenomenon
Type of Analysis
Theoretical Applied (Practical)

Macro Organizational Strategic


Sociology (OS) Management
Level of Analysis

Meso Organization Change


Theory (OT) Management
Decrease in
Micro Productivity
Organizational Human Resource
Behavior (OB) Management
Management Skills
Conceptual Skills
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex
situations.

Human skills
The ability to work with, understand, and motivate
other people, both individually and in groups.
Technical skills
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or
expertise.
Goals of
Organizational Behavior

Prediction Explanation Control


Psychology

Sociology
The Study of
Organizational Social Psychology

Behavior
Anthropology

Political Science
Globalization

Changing Empowering
Workforce Main the Workforce
Trends
Information
Technology
in OB Values
and Ethics
Trend 1: Globalization

Global companies:
– Extend their activities to other parts of the world
– Actively participate in other markets
– Compete against firms in other countries

Implications of globalization:
– New organizational structures
– Different forms of communication
– More competition, change, mergers, downsizing, stress
– Need more sensitivity to cultural differences
Trend 2: Changing Workforce
Primary and secondary diversity
More women in workforce and professions
Different needs of Gen-X, Gen-Y, and baby-boomers
Diversity has advantages, but firms need to adjust
through:
– cultural awareness
– family-friendly
– empowerment
Trend 2: Changing Workforce
Employment Relationship
– employees perform many tasks, not a specific job
Contingent work
– no explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment
Telecommuting
– working from home, usually with a computer connection to
the office
Virtual teams
– operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries;
mainly communicate through electronic technologies
Trend 3: Empowering the Workforce

Managers Are Giving up Controls


Workforce Are Accepting Responsibility
Managers Are Delegating power
Trend 4: Information Technology

Affects how employees interact


– Virtual teams
– Telecommuting
Affects how organizations are configured
– Network structures -- alliance of several
organizations
Trend 5: Values and Ethics

Values
– Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important
– personal, cultural, organizational, professional
Importance of values
a.Globalization -- more awareness of different values
b.Values replacing command-and-control
c.More emphasis on ethical business conduct
Ethics
– Moral principles/values -- determines whether actions are
right/wrong and outcomes are good/bad
Dependent Variable in
Organizational
Behavior
Job Satisfaction;
Productivity;
Absenteeism and Turnover;
Organizational Identity
Organizational Involvement;
Organizational Commitment;
Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
Independent Variable and Levels
of Analysis in Organizational
Behavior

Individual
Individual Collectiv
Collectiv
Level
Level e
e
Level
Level
Evolution of the 21st-Century
Manager
Past Managers Future Managers
Past Managers

Primary Order giver, privileged Facilitator, team member,


elite, manipulator, teacher, advocate, sponsor,
Role controller coach
Learning
Learning&& Periodic
Periodiclearning,
learning, Continuous
Continuouslife-long
life-longlearning,
learning,
Knowledge narrow
Knowledge narrowspecialist
specialist generalist
generalistwith
withmultiple
multiplespecialties
specialties

Compensation
Time, effort, rank Skills, results
Criteria

Cultural
Orientation Monocultural, monolingual Multicultural, multilingual
Evolution of the 21st-Century
Manager
Past Managers Future Managers
Past Managers

Primary
Formal Authority Knowledge (technical
Source of interpersonal)
Influence
View
Viewof
ofPeople Potential
Potentialproblem Primary
People problem Primaryresource
resource

rimary Communication
Primary
Vertical Multidirectional
Pattern
Pattern

Decision Making Limited input for


Broad-based input for joint decisions
Style individual decisions
Evolution of the 21st-Century
Manager
Past Managers Future Managers
Past Managers

hical
thical Afterthought Forethought
onsiderations
Competitive
Competitive
ure
tureof
ofInterpersonal
Interpersonal Cooperative
Cooperative
(win-lose)
(win-lose) (win-win)
(win-win)
Relationships
Relationships

imary Communication
imary
Hoard and restrict access Share and broaden access
Pattern
Approach
to Change Resist Facilitate
E-business Implications for OB
E-business involves using the Internet to facilitate every
aspect of running a business.
E-Management – Fast paced; Virtual teams, Networking skills
E-communication – Email use/abuse; Telecommuting promised and drawbacks
Goal setting and feedback – Web-based goal-setting/evaluation; Risk of over control?
Organizational structure – Virtual teams and organizations; Lack of trust and loyalty in “faceless”
organizations?
Job design – “Sticky” work settings; Unrealistic expectations?
Decision making – Less time to make more decisions; Information overload; Empowerment and
participative decision making
Knowledge management – E-training; E-learning; distance learning
Speed, conflict, and stress – Does relentless speed equal burnout?
Change and resistance to change – Stop the World, I want to get off! Constant change equals conflict
Ethics – Net slaves (low pay with unrealistic promises of riches); Electronic monitoring; Repetitive
motion injuries; Abuse of part-timers (no benefits, no job security); Privacy issues