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V Digestion

S j e process of transforming t e food we eat


into units for absorption

V •bsorption
S j e movement of substances into or across
tissues; in particular, t e passage of nutrients
& ot er substances into t e walls of t e
gastrointestinal tract & t en into t e blood
stream.
V j e GI tract is a flexible muscular tube
from t e mout , t roug t e esop agus,
stomac , small intestine, large intestine
and rectum to t e anus.

V j e GI tract works wit assisting organs -


salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and
pancreas ² to turn food into small
molecules t at t e body can absorb &
used.
V Ingestions
S Àeceipt & softening of food
V jransport of ingested food
V Secretion of digestive enzymes, acid,
mucus & bile
V •bsorption of end products of digestion
V Movement of undigested minerals
V Elimination
S j e transport, storage and excretion of waste
products
V j e process of digestion
begins in t e mout .
V •s you c ew, your teet
crus large pieces of food
into smaller ones, and fluids
blend t ese pieces to ease
swallowing (taste
mec anism as well)
V W en swallowing, t e food
passes t roug t e
p arynx.
V jo bypass t e entrance to
your lungs, t e epiglottis
closes off t e air passages
V •fter a mout ful of food
as been swallowed, it is
called ~ 
V j e esop agus as a sp incter muscle at eac end.
V During a swallow, t e upper esp ageal sp incter opens.
V j e bolus t e slides down t e esop agus, w ic passes
t roug a ole in t e diap ragm to t e stomac
V j e lower esop ageal sp incter at t e entrance of t e
stomac closes be ind t e bolus so t at it proceeds
forward & don·t slip back into t e esop agus
V j e stomac retains t e bolus for a w ile in its upper
portion. Little by little, t e stomac transfers t e food to its
lower portion, adds juices to it and grinds it to a semi liquid
mass called c yme.
V j en bit by bit, t e stomac releases t e c yme t roug
t e pyloric sp incter, w ic opens into t e small intestine
& t en closes be ind t e c yme
V j e c yme arrives at t e ileocecal valve, t e t e
beginning of t e colon in t e lower rig t and side of
t e abdomen.
V •s c yme bypasses t e appendix and travel along
t e large intestine up t e rig t and side of t e
abdomen, across t e front to t e left and side,
down to t e lower left and and and below t e
ot er folds of t e intestine to t e back side of t e
body, above t e rectum.
V During t e c yme·s passage to t e rectum, t e colon
wit draws water from it, leaving semisolid waste.
V j e strong muscles of t e rectum and anal canal
old back t is waste until it is time to defecate.
V jo breakdown food into small nutrients
t at t e body can absorb, 5 different
organs produce secretions:
S Salivary glands
S Stomac
S ancreas
S Liver (via t e gallbladder)
S Small intestine
ë   
   
 ë 
Salivary Mout Saliva Fluid eases swallowing; salivary
Glands enzymes break down carbs
Gastric Stomac Gastric Fluid mixed wit bolus;
Glands Juice ydroc loric acid uncoils
protein;
enzymes break down protein;
mucus protects stomac cells
ancreas Small ancreatic Bicarbonate neutralizes acidic
intestine Juice gastric juices; pancreatic
enzymes break down carbs,
fats
& protein
ë   
   
 ë 
Liver Gallbladder Bile Bile stored until needed
Gallbladder Small Bile Bile emulsifies fat so enzymes
intestine can attack
Intestinal Small Intestinal Intestinal enzymes break down
glands intestine juice carbs, fat & protein fragments,
mucus protects t e intestinal
wall
V Most absorption takes place in t e small intestine
V •bsorption of nutrients into intestinal cell typically
occurs by
S Simple diffusion
6 u  & small lipids are absorbed by simple diffusion.
6 j ey cross into intestinal cells freely

S Facilitated Diffusion
6 Water soluble vits are absorbed by FD. j ey need a specific
carrier to transport t em from one side of t e cell membrane to
t e ot er
S •ctive jransport
6 Glucose & •• must be absorbed actively. j ese nutrients move
against a concentration gradient, w ic requires energy.
V       
S Stress ² decreased gastric acid secretion, reduced BF
to t e stomac , in ibits peristalsis
V Ñ   
S lant protein less digestible t an animal protein
(Cooking protein increases digestibility)
S Frying food in fat at very ig temperatures, decreases
t e flow of digestive secretions
S Cold food may cause intestinal spasms
S W en food is consumed on an empty stomac ,
absorption faster
V ^    
S Low [ ydroc loric acid], can cause gastric, stomac
lining inflammation.
V Constipation
V Diarr ea
V Diverticulosis
V Gastroesop ageal Àeflux (GEÀD)
V Irritable Bowel Syndrome
V Colon Cancer
V Gas
V Ulcers
V Functional Dyspepsia