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V Digestion

S j e process of transforming t e food we eat

into units for absorption

V •bsorption
S j e movement of substances into or across
tissues; in particular, t e passage of nutrients
& ot er substances into t e walls of t e
gastrointestinal tract & t en into t e blood
V j e GI tract is a flexible muscular tube
from t e mout , t roug t e esop agus,
stomac , small intestine, large intestine
and rectum to t e anus.

V j e GI tract works wit assisting organs -

salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and
pancreas ² to turn food into small
molecules t at t e body can absorb &
V Ingestions
S Àeceipt & softening of food
V jransport of ingested food
V Secretion of digestive enzymes, acid,
mucus & bile
V •bsorption of end products of digestion
V Movement of undigested minerals
V Elimination
S j e transport, storage and excretion of waste
V j e process of digestion
begins in t e mout .
V •s you c ew, your teet
crus large pieces of food
into smaller ones, and fluids
blend t ese pieces to ease
swallowing (taste
mec anism as well)
V W en swallowing, t e food
passes t roug t e
p arynx.
V jo bypass t e entrance to
your lungs, t e epiglottis
closes off t e air passages
V •fter a mout ful of food
as been swallowed, it is
called ~ 
V j e esop agus as a sp incter muscle at eac end.
V During a swallow, t e upper esp ageal sp incter opens.
V j e bolus t e slides down t e esop agus, w ic passes
t roug a ole in t e diap ragm to t e stomac
V j e lower esop ageal sp incter at t e entrance of t e
stomac closes be ind t e bolus so t at it proceeds
forward & don·t slip back into t e esop agus
V j e stomac retains t e bolus for a w ile in its upper
portion. Little by little, t e stomac transfers t e food to its
lower portion, adds juices to it and grinds it to a semi liquid
mass called c yme.
V j en bit by bit, t e stomac releases t e c yme t roug
t e pyloric sp incter, w ic opens into t e small intestine
& t en closes be ind t e c yme
V j e c yme arrives at t e ileocecal valve, t e t e
beginning of t e colon in t e lower rig t and side of
t e abdomen.
V •s c yme bypasses t e appendix and travel along
t e large intestine up t e rig t and side of t e
abdomen, across t e front to t e left and side,
down to t e lower left and and and below t e
ot er folds of t e intestine to t e back side of t e
body, above t e rectum.
V During t e c yme·s passage to t e rectum, t e colon
wit draws water from it, leaving semisolid waste.
V j e strong muscles of t e rectum and anal canal
old back t is waste until it is time to defecate.
V jo breakdown food into small nutrients
t at t e body can absorb, 5 different
organs produce secretions:
S Salivary glands
S Stomac
S ancreas
S Liver (via t e gallbladder)
S Small intestine
Salivary Mout Saliva Fluid eases swallowing; salivary
Glands enzymes break down carbs
Gastric Stomac Gastric Fluid mixed wit bolus;
Glands Juice ydroc loric acid uncoils
enzymes break down protein;
mucus protects stomac cells
ancreas Small ancreatic Bicarbonate neutralizes acidic
intestine Juice gastric juices; pancreatic
enzymes break down carbs,
& protein
Liver Gallbladder Bile Bile stored until needed
Gallbladder Small Bile Bile emulsifies fat so enzymes
intestine can attack
Intestinal Small Intestinal Intestinal enzymes break down
glands intestine juice carbs, fat & protein fragments,
mucus protects t e intestinal
V Most absorption takes place in t e small intestine
V •bsorption of nutrients into intestinal cell typically
occurs by
S Simple diffusion
6 u  & small lipids are absorbed by simple diffusion.
6 j ey cross into intestinal cells freely

S Facilitated Diffusion
6 Water soluble vits are absorbed by FD. j ey need a specific
carrier to transport t em from one side of t e cell membrane to
t e ot er
S •ctive jransport
6 Glucose & •• must be absorbed actively. j ese nutrients move
against a concentration gradient, w ic requires energy.
S Stress ² decreased gastric acid secretion, reduced BF
to t e stomac , in ibits peristalsis
V Ñ   
S lant protein less digestible t an animal protein
(Cooking protein increases digestibility)
S Frying food in fat at very ig temperatures, decreases
t e flow of digestive secretions
S Cold food may cause intestinal spasms
S W en food is consumed on an empty stomac ,
absorption faster
V ^    
S Low [ ydroc loric acid], can cause gastric, stomac
lining inflammation.
V Constipation
V Diarr ea
V Diverticulosis
V Gastroesop ageal Àeflux (GEÀD)
V Irritable Bowel Syndrome
V Colon Cancer
V Gas
V Ulcers
V Functional Dyspepsia