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3.

2 Procesele combustiei

Biomass Oxygen

Thermal conservation

Ash Exhaust gas

Thermal energy
Schema procesului de conversie complet a biomaasei

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SISTEME TEHNICE/INSTALA II . PENTRU C MBUSTIA BI MASEI

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3.3 Principii i tehnici de ardere/combustie


Preg tirea biomasei n vederea arderii

uscare; formare; depozitare

Proiectarea/Alegerea echipamentelor i tehnologiei de ardere


Instala ii folosite la arderea c rbunilor (inferiori); Instala ii noi, proiectate func ie de destina ie (producere ap cald menajer , nc lzire, producere abur, centrale energetice produc toare de c ldur (CT), electrice (CE) sau de cogenerare (CET); cu unul din combustibili fosili, ardere combustibili solizi cu lichizi sau gazo i etc.)

Instala ii speciale pentru co-incinerare (ardere biomas

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Tehnologii de ardere
Co-incinerare
Conceptul I arderea biocomb. Si comb. fosil in acelasi focar, cu o singura
unitate de producere de caldura sau curent electric (instalatii de capacitate mare) Ardere biomasa + aer + Combustibil fosil =ncenuse + gaze de ardere = curent electric sau caldura

Conceptul II - arderea biocomb. si comb. fosil in in doua focare diferite,


gazele de ardere se amesteca fiind folosite la o singura unitate de producere de caldura sau curent electric (Combustibil fosil + aer) sau/ i (Biomasa + aer) = cenusa + gaze de ardere = curent electric sau caldura

Conceptul III - arderea biocomb. si comb. fosil in in doua focare diferite, cu


doua unitati separate de producere de caldura sau curent electric, functionand in paralel si caldura sau electricitatea livrate impreuna (Combustibil fosil + aer) sau/ i (Biomasa + aer) = cenusa + gaze de ardere = (curent electric-1 sau 2 unitati electrice) sau (caldura-1 sau 2 unitati termice)

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Tehnologii i echipamente de ardere


Ardere biomasa
Clasificarea instalatiilor de ardere/generatoare
A Dupa felul focarului: In generatoare cu focar deschis In generatoare cu focar inchis B Dupa puterea termica nominala: Generatoare de ardere mici, mijlocii si mari C Dupa modul de introducere a aerului: - cu tiraj natural - cu tiraj fortat D Dupa tipul de gratar folosit: Gratar fix si gratar mobil - plan orizontal - plan inclinat - in trepte - inclinat cu bare mobile - rulant - circular etc.

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Clasificarea instalatiilor de ardere/generatoare - continuare

E. Dupa starea biomasei si curentul de aer:

- ardere in strat fix;


- ardere in strat fluidizat (stationar sau circulant); - arderea in suspensie F. Dupa modul de alimentare:
- cu alimentare manuala/discontinua variaza continuu caracteristicile procesului, reglarea dificila a aerului primar si a coeficientului P - cu alimentare automata/ continua toate fazele arderii sunt continue, reglare usoara a parametrilor

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3.4 Instala ii de ardere


- In strat fix - In strat fluidizat - In suspensie

3.4.1 Instala ii de ardere n strat fix, cu focare pe gr tar


Cu ardere directa Cu ardere inversa Cu ardere mixta

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Upp

-burning

Intake f pri ary air Hot gas flow

Verti

l under ut-burning

Side under ut- burning

iz
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Generatoare cu focar cu gratar


focar cu gratar orizontal fi cu ardere directa focar cu gratar orizontal fi cu ardere inversa Focar cu gratar tronconic fi sau rotativ Focar cu gratar in panta fi Focar cu gratar in panta obil Focar cu gratar orizontal cu iscare rectilinie Focar cu gratar in panta, obil, cu zone de combustie distincte
Vezi diopozitivele pe transparente!

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heat exchanger secondary combustion

chimney

cleaning of exhaust gases

fuel feeding combustion chamber ash dis change

Instalatie de ardere cu gratar tronconic rotativ


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heat exchanger

cyclone co bustion cha ber secon ary air intake

ash ischange

fuell fee ing

ri ary air intake grate

Sche a instalatiei e ardere a bio asei e focar di bare obile in cascada cu ardere in contracurent ( a licabil entru co bustibil u ed)
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heat exchanger

cyclone

secondary co bustion cha ber secondary air intake ash discharge pri ary air intake co bustion retort

fuel feeding

Sche a instalatiei de ardere a bio asei cu focar fix cu ali entare prin i pingere inferioara
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Constructia Sistemelor tehnice pentru combustia lemnului


Faciliati pentru combustia lemnului sub forma de bucati
Warm air To chimney Cast iron with fire clay Charging door Butterfly gate for po er control Fire clay

Cleaning door

Rapping grate Ash door Draught flap manual kontrol)

Osh box

Combustion air

Schema functionala a unui generator/cuptor simplu pentru lemn bucati sau brichete, cu ardere directa
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chimney

s cti

hot air channel

s cti

1
wall heating surface

s cti

Sectiune printr-un cuptor din caramida pentru incalzire si gatit


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feed duct

circulating air co bustion air exhaust gas

door with inspection window feeding auger co bustion tub with air nozzles ash box exhaust gas ventilator circulating air grid

electric starter

Principiul de func ionare al unui generator cu pele i


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Generator modern pe pele i


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Centrala termic ,P= 4MW, pe peleti si aschii de lemn Danemarca,Prin utilizarea condensatorului de gaze de evacuare,se mai castiga 0,8 MW. Umiditatea aschiilor pana la 50%
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tertiary air intake

secondary air intake pri ary air intake fuel feeding ignition burner

exhaust gas intake (recirculation)

ash outlay

Sche a instala iei de ardere a bio asei sub for cu focar tip ciclon
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exhaust gas ash

tertiary air

heat exchanger fuel


fluidised beds

pri ary air bed 1

secondary air beds and

Focar cu ardere in strat fluidizat stationar, cu trei zone de ad isie aer, Coef. Exces aer = 1, 1-1,3, aer preincalzit la 00-250 grade celsius
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fluidised bedr

recurrent cyclone

heat exchanger

heat exchanger

secondary air

fluidised bed cooler air gross ach air

Schema unui cazan cu focar de ardere biomasa, in strat fluidizat circulant


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Schema constructiv- func ional a unui emineu cu focar nchis (stnga) i a unei sobe cu focar nchis (dreapta)
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Focar cu circula ia for at a aerului


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Schema constructiv-func ional a 2 generatoare de c ldur : cu circula ie natural (stnga i circula ie for at (dreapta)
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Vedere exterioar a unui cuptor cu focar nchis


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4. Echipamente specifice pentru combustia biomasei 4.1 Echipamente specifice pentru combustia reziduurilor agricole - Sobe pentru gatit, boilere/centrale termice si generatoare de aer cald - Alegerea sau proiectarea generatoareleor este determinata de caracteristicile combustibilului si domeniul de utilizare Forma si necesarul de energie determina capacitatea generatorului

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Generator/boiler cu circulatia gazelor calde prin conducte

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Boiler cu circulatia si incalzirea apei in conducte

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PROBLEME SPECIFICE LA COMBUSTIA BiOMASEI DIN REZIDUURI AGRICOLE

Continut mare de cenusa a majoritatii reziduurilor agricole Characteristici nefavorabile d.p.d.v. al inmuierii cenusii Continut ridicat de K, Na,Cl si N pot cauza coroziunea suprafetelor pentru schimbul de caldura - Eliminarea cenusii trebuie facuta des sau autonat - Asigurarea unei raciri intense in zona cu temperatura ridicata, pentru evitarea topirii cenusii - Emisii inalte de praf si particule Reducerea lor prin dispozitive speciale
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ACUMULATOARE DE CALDURA -Folosite pentru marirea capacitatii termice a instalatiei si pentru evitare oscilatiilor puterii termice -Permit reglarea mai usoara a caldurii - Permit stocarea caldurii pentru perioade reduse de timp - Asigura functionarea continua la putere nominala -Capacitatea acumulatorului - Minimum 50 l per kW

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shut of valve pump


T

unidirectional restrictor valve temperature measurement heat system pump feed hot water
T T

return lifting
T

puffer pump
T

accumulator pump

B A

biomass boiler

three way valve

return cold water

heat accumulator

household water accumulator

Schema unui sistem de incalzire cu biomasa boiler cu acumulator de caldura si acumulator pentru apa calda menajera

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controller

heat exchanger

feed water

return flow

feeding auger sensor fall wall i pact wall

cell wheel pri ary air ventilator fuel and gutt bed arch grate

i peller

secondary air ventilator

Focar cu ali entare fortata cu un rotor cu palete


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TIPURI DE SISTEME PENTRU ALIMENTAREA CU AER Cu depresiune - Tiraj natural cu cos de tragere, reglarea dificila a coeficientului de exces de aer si a CO - Cu exhaustor pentru gazele de evacuare - control usor si securitate mai mare in functionare Cu presiune - Cu ventilator central sau separat pentru aerul primar si secundar reglarea mai usoara Cuptorul sau boilerul si partile aferente trebuie sa fie ermetice

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Generatoare/Boilere pentru combustia balotilor de paie -Diferite solutii constructive si puteri 30 kW 1 MW -Boilerele mici -sunt destinate pentru baloti conventionali (mici), cu ardere directa; este necesar un acumulator de caldura pentru reglarea temperaturii; emisii mari de CO, NOx si particule; control dificil; utilizeaza in general tragere libera a aerului -Alimentarea manuala sau automata - secvential; -Exista probleme cu reglarea debitului de aer: in prima faza este necesara o cantitate mare de aer pentru oxidarea rapida a volatilelor; dupa arderea volatilelor ramine o cantitate mica de carbune si aerul trebuie redus; -Eficienta scazuta si emisii ridicate pentru o incarcatura
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Power control thermostat

Heat exchanger Feed water Insulation

Inspection

To chimney Flue gas tube Second. combust chamber Combustion chamber Insulation

Connection for door cooling Big charging door with water cooling Small charging door

Grate Door cooling Ash

Dust box

Return line

Schema unui boiler simplu pentru baloti de paie mici/conventionali, utilizat pentru generatoare de puteri mici si mijlocii
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Examplu de acumulator de caldura si schimbator de caldura pentru apa menajera


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boiler room

staking room storage hall

security door

slide door

staking gate

feeding gate

Vedere de ansamblu a unei instalatii pentru combustia balotilor intregi de paie


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full automatic crane feeding secondary air intake security slider

cap

feeding space

hydraulic drive

water cooled grate primary air intake

ash removal

air fans

Schema unei instalatii pentru combustia balotilor intregi de paie pe gratar inclinat din bare
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Expansion tank

Heat accumulator Heat exchanger

ump

Combustion air Ventilator

Fire clay wall Water cooled door

Heat user Straw bale

Instalatie/boiler pentru incalzire cu baloti intregi de paie si lemne, prevazuta cu acumulator aditional de caldura

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Boilere pentru baloti maruntiti/dezintegrati Separaea balotului prin taiere in straturi, maruntirea sau dezintegrarea Alimentare continua, majoritatea cu aer de admisie sub presiune si posibilitatea de control a combustiei Utilizare pentru centrale de putere mare destinate incalzirii centrale si districtuale Sunt prevazute sisteme pentru separarea particulelor evacuate Nu sunt obligatorii acumulatoarele de caldura

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water cooled fire door fire gate

feed water return flow

security connection

straw bale conveyor

exhaust gases duct

knife

feeder

ash slider

feeding tube

water cooled combustion channel

Boiler pentru combustia balotilor (maruntiti cu un dispozitiv) si a paielor, prevazut cu un gratar adaptat
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cyclone

fire wall

exhaust gas ventilator

Bale desintegrator and storage

scraper shredder cylinders

heat exchanger

combustion chamber

fire trough

cell wheel lock

transport fen

Boiler pentru combustia paielor, prevazut cu dispozitiv de dezintegrare a balotilor

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drought fan

tube type heat exchanger

P sensor

secondary combustion zone

temperature sensor

fuel

ash automatic igniter ash screper water cooled combustion trough two pressure fans

exhaust gas combustion air

Boiler cu alimentare continua cu melc a combustibiluli maruntit, prevazut cu sistem de turbionare a combustibilului

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Vedere de ansamblu a unei instalatii de incalzire centrala pe baza de paie


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Centrala termica districtuala pe paie Danemarca, 1999

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Warm air

Butterfly flap

Indikator thermometer Fire clay Warm air

Charging door Hot exhaust gases Primary air Movable deashing grate Ash box

Tiles with fire clay

Secondary heating chamber

Cold air

Centrala pentru incalzire cu aer cald, prevazuta cu schimbator de caldura aditional, utilizand lemne taiate marunt. Poate folosi si schimbator de caldura cu apa DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 45

Schema de principiu a unei centrale termice cu doua faze , pe lemne, numita si gazogen, a) 1admisia centrala a aerului, 2peretele din spate din caramida refractara, 3ventilator sub presiune, 4 regulator automat de aer, 5 reglarea aerului primar 6 reglarea aerului secundar, 7 reglarea aerului tertiar b) 1 spatiu de alimentare cu combustibil, 2 zona de gazeificare, 3 zona de ardere indirecta, 4 placa din caramida refractara, 5 camera de combustie, 6 catalizator, 7 zona schimbatorului AND RURAL AREAS DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE de caldura 46

Vedere de ansamblu a unei centrale cu doua faze tip gazogen


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Schema de principiu a unei centrale pe lemne cu admisia naturala a aerului, 4 reglarea aerului secundar de preincalzire, 5 reglarea aerului secundarr, 12 reglarea zonei de ardere superioare si inferioare, 13 zona flacarii
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air inlet chimney

charging door primary combustion zone slot hot air outlet

fire clay tub

tube tipe heat exchanger

Constructia unui generator de aer cald pentru uscarea materialelor agricole si forestiere, pe lemne cu o capacitate de 60 kW
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FACILITATI TEHNICE PRNTRU COMBUSTIA ASCHIILOR DE LEMN, RUMEGUSULUI SI PELETILOR

fuel

combustion chamber

hydraulic slider for coarse material

Schema alimentarii cu piston


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Alimentatoare cu melc pe gratar in cascada, pentru combustia aschiilor de lemn, in curent direct si invers
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Boiler cu functionare pe aschii si rumegus de lemn, cu gratar mobil in cascada si dispunerea mecanica a cenusii
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thermal operations control insulation fire channel pre-furnace fan fire protection

control panel non-return guard

storage for fuel

boiler

ash box

stoker screw security flap

feeding screw

Centrala pe aschii de lemn cu arzator si boiler ca unitati distincte

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feeding auger removable combustion bowl

gasification chamber

pellet fall duct

primary combustion chamber pelletfall duct


igniter

grate drive primary air secondary air nozzles primary air nozzles (prforated bottom) air intake flow ash box grate ash box

Scheme de alimentare a peletilor pe gratare tip farfurie si oscilant

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Examplu de boiler cu gratar tip farfurie (fix) pentru peleti si aschii de lemn 2 Ventilator cu turatie reglabila pentru gazele de evacuare, 3sistem semiautomat de curatire a tuburilor de gaz, 4 depozitarea cenusii,
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heat exchanger

exhaust gas ventilator

ventilator

spiral combustion (secondary combustion) swing grate flow ash box ignitor grate ash box fuel feeding auger

Centrala termica cu miscarea in spirala a gazelor din camera secundara de combustie DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

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Centrala termica pe baza de aschii de lemn cu depozitarea libera a combustibilului


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Probleme generale privind generatoarele/instalatiile de conversie termiaca, tendinte

Eficienta instalatiilor Depozitarea si utilizarea cenusii Emisiile de poluanti Legislatia privind instalatiile termice, emisiile si cenusa Tendinte: Perfectionarea instalatiilor si exploatarea optima

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Eficienta inalta inseamna/presupune: - efecte economice pozitive privind utilizarea biomasei; - combustie completa; - emisii reduse de elemente si compusi chimici; - cunoastere procesului de combustie, functionarea instalatiilor si a proceselor conexe poate controbui la cresterea eficientei acestora; - ca regula generala, instalatiile noi au eficienta mai ridicata, conceptia lor fiind rezultatul ceretarilor efectuate

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BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Brkic, M. and M. Martinov. 1984. Proucavanje problema skladistenja vlaznih bala kukuruzovine (Investigation of problem of wet maize straw bales storage), XII International Symposium of Yugoslav Society of AgEng, Becici, Proceedings of the Symposium, 452-461. Brkic, M. 1986. Odredjivanje zakonitosti promene otpora strujanja vazduha kroz sloj kukuruzovine u zavisnosti od nacina pripreme biljnog materijala za skladistenje (Determination of maize straw layer air flow resistance respecting method used for their preparation for storage), PhD thesis, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Zagreb. Djevic, M. and D. Novakovic. 2002. Fruit and vine pruning residues like energy material. International Conference: Energy Efficiency and Agricultural Engineering, Rousse, Bulgaria, Proceedings of the Conference, Vol. 2, 144-148. Eichhorn, H. 1999. Landtechnik. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Hartmann, H. and A. Strehler. 1994. Die Stellung der Biomasse. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Mnster-Hiltrup.

2.

3.

4. 5.

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6.

Hartmann, 2001: Die energetische Nutzung von Stroh und strohhnlichen Brennstoffen in Kleinanlagen. Glzower Fachgesprche. Band 17, Energetische Nutzung von Stroh, Ganzplanzengetreide und weiterer halmgutartiger Biomasse Stand der technik und Perspektiven fr den lndlichen Raum, Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR), pp. 62-84. Kaltschmitt, Hartmann, 2001. Energie aus Biomasse, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Kitani, O. and C.W. Hall. 1989. Physical properties of biomass. In Biomass Handbook, pp. 880-882. Gordon and Breach, New York. Martinov, M. 1980. Mogu nosti koriscenja slame kao izvora toplotne energije (Possibilities of wheat straw use as a fuel), MSc work, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Zagreb.

7. 8. 9.

10. Martinov, M. 1982. Energetski potencijal sporednih proizvoda ratarstva (Energy potential of field crops residues). IV International Symposium: Agricultural engineering and science, Pozarevac, Proceedings of the Symposium, 497-513. 11. Martinov, M. and M. Babic. 1994. Razvoj generatora toplog vazduha koji kao gorivo koristi drvo (Development of hot air generator using wood log a s a fuel). Savremena poljoprivredna tehnika, 20/4, pp.184-188.

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12. Martinov, M. and S Topalov. 1984. Osobine i mogucnosti koriscenja sporednih delova kukuruzne biljke (Characteristics and use possibilities of maize residues). XII International Symposium of Yugoslav Society of AgEng, Be i i, Proceedings of the Symposium, 564-572. 13. Muehlenfeld, K.J. 1997. Biomass Energy Sourcebook: A Guide for Economic Development in the Southeast. AL: Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, Tennessee Balley Authority, Muscle Shoals. 14. Strehler, A. 1988. Biomass Combustion Technologies, Heat from Straw and Wood, CNRE Guideline No.1, FAO, Rome. 15. A1. 1995. Solid mineral fuels Determination of gross calorific value by the calorimeter bomb method, and calculation net calorific value, ISO 1928 standard, International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva. 16. A2. 1998. Straw for Energy Production, TechnologyEnvironmentEconomy, Second edition, The centre for Biomass Technology, Copenhagen. 17. A3. 1999. Wood for Energy Production, TechnologyEnvironmentEconomy, Second edition, The centre for Biomass Technology, Copenhagen. 18. A4. 2000. Kleinfeuerungen fr Holz Verbrennungstechnik/Stand der Technik/ Reglwerke/ Entwicklung. Bundesanstalt fr Landtechnik, Wieselburg.
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Schema constructiv- func ional a unui emineu cu focar nchis (stnga) i a unei sobe cu focar nchis (dreapta)
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Focar cu circula ia for at a aerului


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Schema constructiv-func ional a 2 generatoare de c ldur : cu circula ie natural (stnga i circula ie for at (dreapta)
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Vedere exterioar a unui cuptor cu focar nchis


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UTILIZAREA BIOMASEI PENTRU PRODUCTIOA DE CALRURA SI ENERGIE CO-GENERARE CTE

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CTE-urile pe biomasa
Sunt destinate , la fel ca cele pe carbune, producerea de energie termica pentru districte, gererarea de energie electrica in retea. AU capacitati mari si au un grad de automatizare ridicat si un bun control al emisiilor

Reprezentarea schematica procentuala a productiei si pierderilor in diferite variante de functionare, folosind ca si combustibil paiele, aschiile de lemn si gazele naturale
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Gaze evacuate Schimbator de caldura

Motor Consumator caldura

combusti bil
Generator

Schimbator racire cu lichid

Consumator electricitate

Scheme unei CTE

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Scheme of CHP biomass plant with ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) process
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Steam boilers

For conventional electricity generation in steam turbines Optimisation by use of condenser heat for heat Total efficiency, for combination with heating, up to 90% Steam used for driving of different engines Steam turbines Steam engines Steam screw engine etc.

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Fig. 5 Scheme of steam turbine CHP plant

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Characteristics of steam turbine process

Gross efficiency of steam turbine plant depends strongly on share of heat energy produced. If this is zero electrical efficiency, for plants up to 20 kWe is up to 27%. For the other cases are known following figures: If 10% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 35%. If 30% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 46%. If 50% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 58%. If 70% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 68%. But, it should be considered that the marketing of heat energy is rather complicated, only really used can be paid, and the price of this energy is up to three times lower than electric energy, if the feed-in tariff is applied.

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Fig. 5 Scheme of steam turbine CHP plant

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Characteristics of steam turbine process

Gross efficiency of steam turbine plant depends strongly on share of heat energy produced. If this is zero electrical efficiency, for plants up to 20 kWe is up to 27%. For the other cases are known following figures: If 10% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 35%. If 30% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 46%. If 50% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 58%. If 70% of total produced energy is used as heat energy, overall efficiency is 68%. But, it should be considered that the marketing of heat energy is rather complicated, only really used can be paid, and the price of this energy is up to three times lower than electric energy, if the feed-in tariff is applied.

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Fig. 6 Scheme of CHP biomass plant with ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) process
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ORC process

Organic Rankine Cycle As medium is organic matter used with lower boiling and condensation temperature Non toxic, non fleamable mater should be used instead of water for closed process Temperature range of boiler 70-100C Control of upper temperature needed, thermal oil used for a boiler Very low efficiency of electricity generation, under 10%

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ORC process

Organic Rankine Cycle As medium is organic matter used with lower boiling and condensation temperature Non toxic, non fleamable mater should be used instead of water for closed process Temperature range of boiler 70-100C Control of upper temperature needed, thermal oil used for a boiler Very low efficiency of electricity generation, under 10%

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Fig. 7 Simplified scheme of ORC process


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Fig. 8 Energy balance of ORC CHP plant


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Stirling process Any heat source can be used for driving Stirling engine Very important to have big regenerator, porous material, high heat capacity Always same gas inside the engine Isochoric heating tact (1) gas is hated by regenerator Isothermal expansion tact (2) gas expands using thermal energy of external heater, working tact Isochoric cooling tact (3) gas flow, thorough regenerator, to the cool zone Isothermal compression tact (4) heating of cool zone Efficiency of thermal energy of heater is 25% (21 to 28%) Total efficiency of electricity generation is up to 10%
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Fig. 9 Simplified scheme of Stirling engine function


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Exhaust gases Exhaust gas exchanger Fuel, plant oil Generator

Engine Heat energy consumer

Cooling fluid exchanger

Electricity consumer

Fig. 10 Scheme of CHP for plant oil

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Heat Air O2
Cathode

H2O

Electrolyte Catalyst Anode

Fuel

e H2

Fig. 11 Principles of fuel cells

Kanali za Channels for dovod goriva fuel supply

Channels Kanali for oxidant za dovod oksidanta supply

Katoda Cathode Anoda Anode Elektrolit Electrolyte Katalizator Catalyst


84

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5 C

5 C

Liq i

r
G r r ir ( 000 )

r El ri ri

C r

G G

il r l r

L
S G l i T r l w r r li r r il r i j i i , 80 li W li

El

ri i r r

i
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l
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R i

r ( 0 000

G G oole G fil e

he
G

C oo

l ze

A bien i I ola e boile A bien i bu ne E hau ga oole Bio a S ea A bien A h i Fl ing h E hau ga fil e

E hau ga oole

Chi ne

Fig. 13 CHP plan fo

oli bio a

n ga ifi a ion

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Fig. 14 Schematic diagram of CHP plant using straw, wood chips and natural gas
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Three-generation, cooling with heat

Stea ra of cooling fl i a Para hla nog re t Con Kon er ator en e


Generator Te no ra hla no Li i cooling o flrei t Concentrate Koncentro ani or ent a or ent a

I eat or toolote rce A or er

I ari a E a orator

Coole ena la o watera

Ra hla na Cooling o a water

a a A P or ent a or ent

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Economy of biomass CHP


Calculation of the profitability of the CHP plants is rather complex. There are two final products, electricity and heat energy. In most cases the price for heat is fixed, and the price of electricity is calculated. There are lots of factors that have influences on the final price of electricity. The most significant are: 1. Fuel price. 2. Price of the plant investment cost. 3. Annual operation period. 4. Operational costs. 5. Electrical, thermal and overall efficiency.

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Tab. 1 Prices of biomass per kWh of primary energy and net energy for maximal efficiency of primary conversion (combustion)
In c (kWh)-1 Approximate net Price, heating value, gross net t-1 MJ kg-1 38 35 62 50 25 600 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.6 0.6 5.3 1.7 1.5 1.9 2.0 0.8 6.2 14 14 15 11.5 15.5 41

Biomass Crop residues1, straw, MC ca. 15% Maize cobs1, MC ca. 15% Wood chips2, MC ca. 15%, TD up to 50 km Wood chips2, MC ca. 35%, TD up to 20 km Wood processing residues2, MC ca. 10% Plant oil3
1Efficiency

60% 2Efficiency 80% 3Efficiency 85% MC moisture content TD transport distance

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a)

b)

Fig. 15 Specific investment costs, per kW of electric power, for biomass CHP plants a) for solid biomass (CFB fix fluidized bed), b) for plant oil
For example, the ORC specific investments are reduced for around 20% if the electric power increases from 400 kW to 1.2 MW. The specific investment costs for plant oil CHP plants reduces significantly by increasing its electric power over 150 kW.
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Heating Calculation of heating power in is based on providing indoor temperature e.g. +20 C, if the outside temperature is 18 C. Taking into account the reduced thermal power during the nights and the temperature change during the day and heating period, the average energy needed makes commonly 25% of maximal heating power. This is not a big problem if li uid or gaseous fossil fuels are used, due to relatively simple control of power. If solid biomass CHP plant is used, control is much more difficult and energy losses considerably higher. That is why combination of solid biomass and li uid/gaseous fuel should be applied. If the power of biomass part covers 50% of calculated plant power (Fig. 16 left), the average load of heat energy is 50%, for average climate conditions in the region, and additionally about 7% of fossil fuel is needed. For the share of 40% of thermal power based on biomass, average load is 63%, and the percentage of additional fossil fuel energy makes 13% (Fig. 16 right).

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Fig. 16 Effective heat energy use for heating (bright grey colour) of solid biomass CHP plant with nominal power 50% of maximal (calculated) left, and 40% of maximal right, and share of heat energy from fossil fuel (dark grey) Tab. 2 Heating surface covered by minimal solid biomass CHP plants produced thermal power mixture of business and household objects
Type of biomass CHP plant ORC Steam turbine
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Minimal thermal power, MW 1.0 2.7

Minimal heating surface, m2 18.270 49.330


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Four examples of biomass CHP plants, two for technological utilization of produced heat energy (T1 and T2) and two with heat energy utilization for space heating purposes (H1 and H2) were elaborated: T1 is a CHP plant based on a steam turbine process with electric and thermal power of 3.05 MW and 24.60 MW, respectively. The fuel is soybean straw, annual consumption 60,000 tonnes. The data for this CHP plant are taken from the pre-project of a CHP plant of a local soybean processing company. T2 is a biogas plant with electric and thermal power 540 kW and 680 kW, respectively. For the annual production of 700,000 m3 biogas 4,000 tonnes of maize silage, 300 tonnes of manure and vegetable waste are used. The data for this example are taken from the feasibility study of a dried vegetable producer. H1 plant represents a biogas based CHP facility with electric and thermal power 440 kW and 560 kW, respectively. The biogas is generated from on site produced manure. The data of this example are taken from pre-project of livestock farm. H2 is a CHP plant based on ORC process with electric and thermal capacity of 5,000 kW and 19,000 kW, respectively. It uses 32,500 tonnes of soybean straw as fuel. This example is an imaginary CHP plant for a small community and data from literature were used.
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Tab. 3 Technical data of the biomass CHP plants


Technical data Electric power Thermal power Operating hours Electricity consumption (total) Produced electricity Produced heat energy Share of marketable heat energy Total fuel primary energy input Unit MW e MW t h a1 MWhe a1 MWhe a1 MWht a1 % MWh a1 CHP plant T1 3.05 24.60 6,600 2,200 20,000 162,300 72 240,000 T2 0.54 0.68 2,630 220 1,420 1,790 70 3,850 H1 0.44 0.56 8,500 23 2,900 3,230 45 7,850 H2 5.00 19.00 4,500 3,400 22,500 85,770 63 136,000

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Tab. 4 Economic appraisal of biomass CHP plants in


Technological utilization CHP facility Investment costs, 106 Total annual costs, 103 a1 Total income, 103 a1 Electricity (5.3 c kWh1) Heat (3.5 c kWh1) Breakeven price of electricity, c kWh1 T1 17.0 5,253 5,129 1,060 4,069 5.9 T2 1.4 308 119 75 44 18.6 Heating H1 1.5 340 199 153 46 10.5 H2 20.5 4,195 3,080 1,190 1,890 10.2

Obviously, use of maize silage for anaerobic digestion, with intermixture of animal manure, is not profitable. If there is need to use co-substrate in a biogas CHP plant, other types of biomass should be considered. The breakeven electricity price varies between 5.9 and 18.6 c (kWh)-1. Based on this, the granted price of electricity from solid biomass should be in the range between 7 and 12 c (kWh)-1, and 1116 c (kWh)-1 for biogas. The price of electricity primarily depends on the fuel price, capacity (electric and heat power) of the plant. The annual operating hours and the share of marketable heat energy.
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