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393 (de) vizualizări50 paginiJun 15, 2011

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By,

AIM:

The main aim of our project is to implement the adaptive bilateral filter (ABF) algorithm for sharpness enhancement and noise removal.

NECESSITY

The goal of image restoration is to improve a degrade image in some predefined sense. Schematically this process can be visualized as

where f is the original image, g is a degraded/noisy version of the original image and f is a restored version.

Scope

The scope of this project is to deal with images that are appropriate for digital photography. We do not consider images that are severely degraded.

Importance of technique

The ABF sharpens an image by increasing the slope of the edges without producing overshoot or undershoot. It is an approach to sharpness enhancement that is fundamentally different from the unsharp mask (USM). This new approach to slope restoration also differs significantly from previous slope restoration algorithms in that the ABF does not involve detection of edges or their orientation, or extraction of edge profiles.

Image Enhancement: A process which aims to improve bad images so they will look better. No quantitative measures Subjective Remove effects of sensing environment

Image Restoration: A process which aims to invert known degradation operations applied to images. Mathematical, model dependent quantitative measures Objective

Image restration :

Image restoration methods are used to improve the appearance of an image by application of a restoration process. It is use mathematical model for image degradation.

Eg:1.Geomatric distortion caused by imperfect lenses. 2.Superimposed interference patterns caused by mechanical system. 3.Noise from electronics sources.

The Degrade Image:f(x,y) F=Original Image G= Degrade Image F=restoed The ABF are sharpens an Image by increasing the also slope of the edges without undershoot (or) overshoot.

Degradation Models

Degradation Models

Image degradation can occur for many reasons, some typical degradation models are Motion Blur: due to camera panning or subject moving quickly. Atmospheric Blur: long exposure Uniform 2D Blur Out-of-Focus Blur

Degradation Models

Ideally the value of a pixel should be the light intensity at a infinitesimal point in the imaged scene. Each sensor in a CCD array integrates the light intensity in a small area surrounding a point with possibly non-equal weighting The point spread function (PSF) is the image captured when there is only one single point with high intensity in the scene. This PSF is the degradation filter. Typically h(x,y) due to sensor PSF is low-pass and is often approximated by a Gaussian filter h(x,y)= e^-k (x^2+y^2

Cause of blurring :

The blerring (or) degradation of image can be caused by many factors. 1.The image capture process :by the camera (or) when long supose times are used. 2.out of focus optics :used as a mwide-angle lens.which are to reduced the number of photos captured. Noise removal using spatial fillters :it is used to remove the various type of noise in digital image.it operated the small neighbouroods,3*3 to11*11.

The sensor integrates the intensity value of a point over a certain exposure time T When there are moving objects in the imaged scene at high speed (relative to exposure time), we see motion blur. To reduce the motion blur, one can reduce the exposure time Often due to camera panning or fast object motion. Linear along a specific direction.

oi a a r ni g i lm g e brd a lr i g u m e e

1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 2 0 4 0 6 0

1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 2 0 4 0 6 0

Noise Models

Most noise models assume the noise is some known probability density function. The density function is chosen based on the underlining physics. Gaussian: poor illumination. Rayleigh: Salt and Pepper: Gamma or Exp: range image faulty switch during imaging laser imaging

There are two types of filters:1.Analog: using analog electronics circuits such as resistor, capacitor,opamp. These are using the noise reduction. 2.digital filters: these are using digital processor to perform numerical calculation on sampled value of the signals.

Order filter :

Order filter operates on small sub image the most useful of the order filters in the median filter. The median filter select the middle pixel value from the order set. These disadvantages eliminate adaptive median filter. Order of the filter are two 1.Maximum filter :It is used to the selected the longest value in the window of the pixel. 2.Minimum filter :It is used to the selected the smallest values of the window of the pixel.

BILATERAL FILTER

Bilateral filtering smoothes images while preserving edges, by means of a nonlinear combination of nearby image values.

Domain filtering c(,x) measures the geometric closeness between the neighborhood center x and a nearby point

Range filtering s( f(), f (x)) measures the photometric similarity between the pixel at the center point x and that of a nearby point

Suppose there is n pixels in a image, a bilateral filtering might require O(n2) time VERY SLOW. A filtering method with fixed mask like mean filtering is a convolution by mask and image. 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

Divide a image into M level by intensity; each level has a reference intensity fj . So we have a new filtering funtion: This new function has a fixed mask within each level. The final output h(x) is a linear interpolation between the output hj(x) of the two closest values fj .

How to decide r by image ? Noise causes smaller difference between pixels, and edges cause lager difference. Maybe we can evaluate the difference within image to find a better r.

Origin Image Weight f(i)*w(i) Output Image

w1 w2 w5 w8 w3 w6 w9

f1 f4 f7

f2 f5 f8

f3

f6 f9 w4 w7

Normalisation Factor

Bilateral Filter

For image I at coordinate I(m,n):

Bilateral Filter

Bilateral filter output Impulse Response Degraded Image

BILATERAL FILTER

Advantages

Fast Simple Intuitive parameter selection Edges preserving Over smooth Cant iterate many times

Limitations

The ABF retains the general form of a bilateral filter, but contains two important modifications. First, an offset is introduced to the range filter in the ABF. Second, both and the width of the range filter in the ABF are locally adaptive

Adaptive Bilateral filter output Impulse Response Degraded Image

Fast Simple Intuitive parameter selection Edges preserving Sharpens image Smoothes the noise

APPLICATIONS

Take image as input and also range filter and domain filter values Calculate Gaussian weights Calculate a smaller window Calculate normalization factor for the window Calculate the impulse response of the window Repeat the process from third step till thesize of whole image Send the image as output

Read an Image Convert the RGB image to Gray Calculate ROI Form a degraded image by adding PSF blur and random noise Apply Bilateral Filter Apply Adaptive Bilateral Filter Display the Images

Read an Image Form the Degraded Image Apply Bilateral Filter Apply Adaptive Bilateral Image Display the Images

Take image as input and also range filter and domain filter values and gamma values Calculate Gaussian weights Calculate a smaller window Calculate normalization factor for the window Calculate the impulse response of the window Repeat the process from third step till the size of whole image Send the image as output

The ROI are using the analysis on past of an Image. The ROI are actually using the standards' counters or) free counters. an image most is 8-bit image. If a pixel in the mask is non zero the corresponding pixel in the image to process is processed. If the pixel in the image mask value is 0 the corresponding pixel in the image to process in left unchange. The default value of the offset is (0,0).

1. Bounding rectangle for an ROI: 2.Regions List: these array are containing counter identifier. Where as 0An exterior counter 1An interior counter. Introduction to digital filters:In a signal processing the function of filter is to remove unwanted past of the signal such as random noise.

FLOW CHART

Degraded image Develop Degraded model Knowledge of image creation process Develop inverse Degraded process

types of noise such as Gauss ion filters. find the rank and order.

Introduction to MATLAB:MATLAB is high-performance language for technical computing. It integrated computation visualization and programming. The program in written in non-interactive language such as a C (or) FORTRAN.

1.Develpment Environment 2.The MATLAB mathematical function 3.The MATLAB language 4.Graphics 5.The MATLAB application program interface(API)

Requirements

Computer 40 GB Hard Disk Pentium Processor 2.6 or 3.0 G Hz Speed Software: MATLAB 7.2 or 7.4 or 7.6 version

DEGRADED RESULTS

O in l Im g rig a a e D g d dIm g e ra e a e

HISTROGRAM

h to r m e r d dImg is ga Dga e a e 80 0 70 0 60 0 50 0 40 0 30 0 20 0 10 0 0 0 5 0 10 0 10 5 20 0 20 5

BILATERAL RESULTS

B te l filte im g ila ra r a e O in l Im g rig a a e

h to r m iltea filtee I a e is ga b r l r d mg 80 0 70 0 60 0 50 0 40 0 30 0 20 0 10 0 0 0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1

A a tiv b te l F r d p e ila ra ilte A a tiv b te l F r d p e ila ra ilte

ROI RESULTS

o in l iu a e rig a m g

FUTURE SCOPE

For future development of the ABF, we would suggest that the following issues be addressed. First, the ABF tends to resize the image, due to its fundamental mechanism of sharpening an image by pulling up or pushing down pixels along the edge slope. Second, the ABF does not perform as well at corners as it does on lines and spatially slow-varying curves, since the ABF is primarily based on transforming the histogram of the local data, which cannot effectively represent 2-D structures. Finally, in the current design of the ABF, a fixed domain Gaussian filter is used.

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