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EMBRYONIC PERIOD - 2

Formation of blood & blood vessels Organs develop from endoderm

Formation of blood & blood vessels


INTRA EMBRYONIC CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


 

At the beginning of 3rd week angioblast cells differentiate from mesodermal cells of visceral mesoderm covering the york sac Angioblast cells form clusters & cords, which is canalized later Central cells of these form blood cells Peripheral cells form endothelial lining of the blood vessels

Formation of blood & blood vessels

Blood cells undergo programmed cell death (Apoptosis) and replaced by blood cell precursors Blood cell precursors originate from the york sac & dorsal mesentery These precursor cells migrate to the developing liver and colonize it.(Major haemopoietic tissue of the fetus) Later these precursor cells migrate to the bone marrow

Extra embryonic circulatory system




At the beginning of the 3rd week blood vessels & blood cells are formed In the villus stems & connecting stalk By continuous budding vessels make connection with intra embryonic circulation

Embryonic blood vessel formation

Structures originate from mesoderm


Supporting tissue (Develop from somites)
  

Connective tissue Cartilage Bone Striated muscle Smooth muscle

Muscles (Develop from somites)


 

Kidney,gonads & ducts (Develop from intermediate mesoderm)

Circulating system (Lateral plate


mesoderm)  Blood
 Heart  Vessels  Blood cells


Lymphatic system
 Vessels  Lymphatic organs

Adrenal cortex & spleen

Structures originate from endoderm


Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the main organ Formation of the GIT depends on folding of the embryo
 

Cephalocaudal folding Lateral folding

Cephalocaudal folding
Initially the endoderm lines the york sac & forms the roof of the york sac With the increased rate of growth of brain & vesicles, embryo bulges into the amniotic cavity (Head fold) Because of the increased growth of the tail end of the embryo fold ventrally (Tail fold) To a lesser extent the body of the embryo grow & fold in cephalocaudal direction

Mid line sagittal section of the embryo

Mid line sagittal section of the embryo

Mid line sagittal section of the embryo

Mid line sagittal section of the embryo

Results of cephalocaudal folding


 

Formation of head fold & tail fold Incorporation of york sac into the embryo to produce
   

Foregut Midgut Hindgut Vitelline duct communicating with the york sac

Foregut


Bounded anteriorly by buccopharyngeal membrane During 4th week buccopharyngeal membrane ruptures & form communication between amniotic cavity & primitive gut (Future mouth)

Midgut


Communicates with york sac by vitelline duct Later the vitelline duct elongates & narrower due the folding of the embryo Bounded posteriorly by cloacal membrane During 7th week it breaks down & form communication between amniotic cavity & primitive gut (Future anus)

Hindgut
 

Lateral folding
Due to rapid growth of somites Forms anterior body wall except in the region of vitelline duct & connecting stalk Initially flat embryo becomes rounded

Cross section of embryo

Cross section of embryo

Cross section of embryo

Cloaca


Cavity formed by partial incorporation of allantois into the body of embryo By 5th week vitelline duct, remaining part of allantois & umbilical vessels form umbilical ring

Derivatives of endoderm

Derivatives of endoderm

Products of endoderm development


Primitive gut Epithelial lining of respiratory tract Parenchyma of thyroid, parathyroid, liver & pancreas Reticular stroma of tonsils & thymus Epithelial lining of urinary bladder & urethra Epithelial lining of tympanic cavity & auditory tube

External appearance during nd month the 2


At the end of 4th week embryo has 28 somites Main external features at the end of 4th week are
 

Somites Pharyngeal arches

When number of somites increasing, counting the number becomes difficult, then crown rump length (CRL) is used to asses the age of the embryo

Crown rump length




Is the measurement of length in mm from vertex to the apices of buttocks  This is an approximated value, because it depends on the degree of flexion of the embryo

Main external structural nd month changes during 2

Enlargement of head Formation of limbs Formation of face, ears, eyes & nose

Formation of limbs
Upper limb formation precedes than that of lower limb At the beginning of 5th week paddle shape limb buds appear Upper limb buds appear dorsal to pericardial swelling in the region of 4th cervical to 1st thoracic somites (root valves of brachial plexus) Lower limbs appear caudal to the umbilical cord in the region of lumber & upper sacral somites

Terminal part of limb flattens & with circular constriction to form precursors of fingers and toes Four radial grooves separates the terminal part of limb into hand & 3 digits With 2nd constriction at proximal part of limb is divided into 2 segments

5 week old embryo

Clinical importance
High chance of having birth defects during organogenesis
Environmental factors  Genetic factors


Summary
Formation of blood & blood vessels Organs develop from endoderm
 

Folding of the embryo GIT formation

Formation of limbs