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Workshop in computer management

Gourav kumar Mba(1st sem)

1. a) Discusss about different types of input & output devices. b) What is operating system? How does and operating system works and discuss the functions of operating system.

Input & output devices.

Input Devices:-Data and instructions must enter a computer system before the computer can performe any computation on the supplied data. Keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanners, digital camera, bar code reader, touch Sreeen, Speech input device (microphone) Output Devices:-An output unit performe the reverse operation of an input supplied information obtained from data processing to out side world. Monitor , Speaker, Printers ( different types

Input devices.
(a) Keyboard It is a text base input device that allows the user to input alphabets, numbers and other characters. It consists of a set of keys mounted on a board. (b) Mouse The mouse is a small device used to point to a particular place on the screen and select in order to perform one or more actions. It can be used to select menu commands, size windows, start programs etc.

Input devices
(c) Joystick The joystick is a vertical stick which moves the graphic cursor in a direction the stick is moved. It typically has a button on top that is used to select the option pointed by The cursor. Joystick is used as an input device primarily used with video games, training simulators and controlling robots (d)Scanner Scanner is an input device used for direct data entry from the source document into the computer system. It converts the document image into digital form so that it can be fed into the computer. Capturing information like this reduces the possibility of errors typically experienced during large data entry. commands

(e) Bar codes A bar code is a set of lines of different thicknesses that represent a number. Bar Code Readers are used to input data from bar codes. Most products in shops have bar codes on them.Bar code readers work by shining a beam of light on the lines that make up the bar code and detecting the amount of light that is reflected back (g) Touch Screen It allows the user to operate/make selections by simply touching the display screen. Common examples of touch screen include information kiosks, and bank ATMs.

(h)Digital camera A digital camera can store many more pictures than an ordinary camera. Pictures Taken using a digital camera are stored inside its memory and can be transferred to a computer by connecting the camera to it. A digital camera takes pictures by converting the light passing through the lens at the front into a digital image. (i) The Speech Input Device The Microphones - Speech Recognition is a speech Input device. To operate it we require using a microphone to talk to the computer. Also we need to add a sound card to the computer. The Sound card digitizes audio input into 0/1s .A speech recognition program can process the input and convert it into machine-recognized

. Output Devices (a) Monitor Monitor is an output device that resembles the television screen and uses a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to display information. The monitor is associated with a keyboard for manual input of characters and displays the information as it is keyed in. It also displays the program or application output. Like the television, monitors are also available in different sizes. (b) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) LCD was introduced in the 1970s and is now applied to display terminals also. Its advantages like low energy consumption, smaller and lighter have paved its way for Usage in portable computers (laptops). Figure 8: The LCD

(c) Printer Printers are used to produce paper (commonly known as hardcopy) output. Based on the technology used, they can be classified as Impact or Non-impact printers. Impact printers use the typewriting printing mechanism wherein a hammer strikes the paper through a ribbon in order to produce output. Dot-matrix and Character printers fall under this category. Non-impact printers do not touch the paper while printing. They use chemical, heat or electrical signals to etch the symbols on paper. Inkjet, Deskjet, Laser, Thermal printers fall under this category of printers.

An operating system, or OS, is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers. manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software .

Operating system working process

Functions of Operating System:1. Interface between user and hardware :The computer hardware does not understand the language used by humans to communicate with each other. It works on the binary language of 0s and 1s. The users work in human understandable language like English but how we get the correct result from the computer? It is the operating system which converts our input to the language understandable by the hardware the converts the output to user understandable language. For this, each operating system has its own set de commands and the user supplies these commands on the terminal. These commands are interpreted by the operating system and the desired result is presented to the user. Thus operating system acts as command interpreter. 2. Peripheral Management:The operating system manager the working of different input/output devices attached to the computer. Different input output devices like printer and scanners work under control of the operating system. For example, if there are 3 print commands fired from different application, the operating system will ensure that All the printing jobs are performed efficiently and independent of each other. The operating system keeps a check on the working of various devices attached with computer.

3. Memory Management: Memory management is one of the most critical jobs of the operating system. The operating system decides which file will be stored at which location in the memory. Both primary and secondary memories work under control of operating system. The operating system takes data needed for processing from secondary memory and stores into the main memory. Then it takes output from the main memory and stores it into the secondary memory when required by the user. 4. Process Management: In operating system allowing multiple applications to run simultaneously, the operating system keeps track of number of processes waiting to get processed and manager the processing of each and every process by providing them whatever they want. The modern operating systems allocate a part of main memory to each running application. Importance Of The Operating System

2. What is a programming language? Differentiate between high level & low level languages. Discuss briefly about five generations .of languages.

A programming language is an artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. High level programming languages are more structured, are closer to spoken language and are more intuitive than low level languages. Higher level languages are also easier to read and can typically sometimes work on many different computer operating systems. Some examples of higher level languages are Java, Visual Basic, COBOL, BASIC, C++, and Pascal to name only a few..

Lower level languages are typically assembly languages that are machine specific .Assembly language is a low-level programming language for computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other programmable devices. It implements a symbolic representation of the machine codes and other constants needed to program a given CPU architecture.

Five generations of languages.

The first generation languages or 1GL are low-level languages that are machine language. The second generation languages or 2GL are also low-level languages that generally consist of assembly languages. The third generation languages or 3GL are high-level languages such as C. The fourth generation languages or 4GL are languages that consist of statements similar to statements in a human language. Fourth generation languages are commonly used in database programming and scripts. The fifth generation languages or 5GL are programming languages that contain visual tools to help develop a program. A good example of a fifth generation language is Visual Basic