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AC Machines

Characteristics of AC Electrical Motors

ECG 013 Introduction to EE

Induction motor

Widely used because of its relative simplicity in construction Does not require external electrical connection to the rotor, thus slips rings and brushes are not required Operates at a lower speed than the synchronous speed

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Synchronous Speed
For a P-pole machine, the angular velocity of the field is given by:

P/ 2

This is also known as synchronous angular velocity

The synchronous speed (in rpm) is given by:


120 f ns P

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Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor

cross-section

conductors in rotor

photograph

Views of Smokin Buckeye motor: rotor, stator and cross-section of stator


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Selection of Induction Motors


Some of the most important considerations in selecting an induction motor are:
1. Efficiency 2. Starting torque 3. Pull-out torque 4. Power factor 5. Starting current

ECG 013 Introduction to EE

Synchronous Motor

Generation of electrical energy by utility companies is done almost exclusively with synchronous machines. Assuming a constant frequency source, the speed of a synchronous motor does not vary with load. The stator windings of a synchronous machine are basically the same as those of an induction machine

ECG 013 Introduction to EE

Synchronous Motor

The synchronous motor can act as a source of reactive power Proper use of synchronous motors can lower energy costs of an industrial plant by increasing the power factor

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Basic Single-Phase Induction Motor


The pulsating flux produced by the main winding can be resolved into two counterrotating components

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Auxiliary Windings

Two windings that are 90 apart physically and carrying currents 90 apart in phase produce a rotating magnetic field. Single-phase induction motors contain an auxiliary winding displaced by 90 electrical degrees from the main winding.

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Auxiliary Windings

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Stepper Motor
Are used for accurate, repeatable positioning applications such as read/write heads of a computer floppy drive or for moving the head in an ink-jet printer By controlling the rate at which pulses are applied to the windings of the stepper motor, speed can be varied continuously from a standing stop to a maximum that depends on the motor and the load.
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Stepper Motor
Various types: 1. Variable-reluctance stepper motor 2. Permanent-magnet stepper motor 3. Hybrid stepper motor

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