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Theory of Atom

Atom Atom is the smallest part of element John Dalton Theory 1. Each elements consist a small particles which is called atom 2. Atoms of each element have a same of characteristic, size and mass 3. Compound is a substance that consist of more than one atom.

4. Chemical reaction is not change the characteristic of atom, but only change the composition only.

Rutherford Theory Mass of atom center in nucleus, which have a positive charge

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Nucleus

Niels Bohr Theory Atom have a central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons. And electrons move around the nucleus.

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THE INVENTOR

OF PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC

J.J Thomson, 1897 -----> electron Ernest Rutherford, 1911 ----> proton James Chadwick, 1932 ----> neutron

PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC


Electron ( negative charge)

+
+
-

Proton (positive charge)

Neutron ( neutral/ have no charge)

Figure : Model Atom

Electron symbol
Proton symbol Neutron symbol

(e)
(p) (n)

Mass And The Charge of Sub Atomic Particle


N o

Particle Proton Neutron Electron

Mass 1 1 0

Charge +1 0 -1

1 2 3

Catatan : Massa adalah dalam satuan massa atom (sma) Massa elektron sangat kecil, sehing ga massanya = 0 sma

THE MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER

WRITE THE SYMBOL OF ATOM

X = Name of Atom/Chemical Symbol A = Atomic Number Z = Mass Number

Atomic Number shows the number of protons or electrons in its atom.

Mass number shows the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.

23

Name of Atom Natrium/ Sodium

Na
11

Number of Protons = 11 Number of Electron = 11 Number of Neutron = 23-11 = 12

REMEMBER! Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons

35

Name of Atom is chlor

Cl
17

Number of Proton = 17 Number of Electron = 17 Number of Neutron = 35 17 = 18

Configuration of Electron

Skin 1 (2 electron)
Skin 2 (8 electron)

Skin 3 (18 electron)

Skin 4 (32 electron)

Example : Atom Natrium (Na), Number of

electron 11.

2e 11p 12n 8e 1e 11 electron

Example : Atom Khlorin (Cl), Number of

electron 17.

2e 17p 17n 8e 7e 17 elektron

Theory of Ion
Electron outside leave atom

Atom become the positive charge

+
-

This state is called ION POSITIVE (KATION)

Atom get electron from outside

Atom become the negative charge

+
-

This state is called ION NEGATIVE (ANION)

Ionisasi atom Natrium (Na)

Atom Natrium have 11 electron with configuration :


1e

Skin 1 Skin 2 2e 8e

Skin 3 1e

11p

2e

8e

1e outside will be discharge, so that formed Ion Na+

Ionisasi atom Khlorin (Cl)


1e
7e

Atom Chlorin have 17 electron with configuration :


11p

Skin1
2e

Skin 2 8e

Skin 3 7e

2e 8e

Outside orbit of electron catch electron from other, so that formed of ion Cl

Molecule of element and Molecule of compound of Element Molecule


A molecule that is composed of similar atoms. Molecule of Compound A molecule is composed of different atoms.

Molecule of element

Molecule of Compound

Monoatomic Element ( He, S, Fe, Ca, dll) Element Molecule Diatomic Element (O2, N2, H2, dll) Poliatomic Element (O3, P4 Diatomic Compound Compound (NaCl, HCl, KCl, HBr, dll) Poliatomic Compound (H2SO4, NaOH,C6H12O6)

Isotopes, isobar, dan Isoton


The atoms of an element are not all alike. Some have more neutrons than others. These different versions of the element are called isotopes. Lithium have two isotopes with mass number 6 and 7. The symbol of Lithium : Li-6 or Li-7

Isotop, isobar, dan Isoton


Isotopes Isotopes have different mass numbers but the same atomic number. Example :
3 4

He
2

and
2

He

Isobar

Isobar have different atomic number but the same mass number. Example :

14

14

C
6

and
7

Isoton

Isoton have different both atomic number and mass number but the same amount of neutrons. Example :

13 6

14

and