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# Artificial Intelligence

Lecture #12

## Dr. Md. Hasanuzzaman

Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Dhaka University

## October 14, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #12 1

Contents
 Learning Automata
 Learning Automaton Model
 Collective Learning Automata-CLA
 Learning by Induction
 Symbolic Representation of Induction
Learning

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Learning Automata

##  The theory of learning automata was first introduced in

1961.
 Learning Automata system are finite state adaptive
systems which interact iteratively with a general
environment.
 Through a probabilistic trial-and-error response process
they learn to choose or adapt to a behavior which
produce the best response.

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Learning Automata (Cont.)
(Learning Automaton Model)
Response Stimulus
Environment

Learning
Automaton
 The learning cycle begins with an input to the learning
automata system from the environment.
 This input elicits one of the finite number of possible response
from the automaton.
 The environment receives and evaluates the response and then
provides some form of feedback.
 Feedback is used by the automaton to alter its stimulus-
response mapping structure to improve its behavior.
October 14, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #12 4
Learning Automata (Cont.)
(Example: Best Temperature Control Setting)
Initial probability values
1/10 1/10 1/10 …………… 1/10 1/10

Control Selection
50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

 Since the probability values are uniformly distributed, any one of the setting
will be selected with equal distribution.
 If the response is good, the automata will modify its probability vector with a
positive increment and reducing all other probabilities
 If response is bad the reduce the probability for that temperature.
 This process continues until the good selection has max value and others are
near zero.

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Learning Automata (Cont.)
(Collective Learning Automata-CLA)

##  CLAs are standard learning automata systems except that

feedback is not provided to the automaton after each
response.
 In this case, several collective stimulus response actions
occur before feed back is passed to the automaton.
 Example: Person adaptation after analyzing N-frames.

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Learning by Induction
 This form of learning requires the use of inductive
inference
 We use inductive learning when we formulate a
general concept after seeing a number of instances or
examples of the concept.
 Example: Weather is cold in December, in
 Japanese people speak in Japanese. One time traveled?
Talked with one person?

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Symbolic Representation of
Induction Learning
 The inductive process can be described symbolically through
the use of predicates P and Q.

P (a1 )  Q(b1 )
P (a2 )  Q(b2 )
.
.

P (ak )  Q(bk )
.

## October 14, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #12 8

Recommended Textbooks
 [Negnevitsky, 2001] M. Negnevitsky “ Artificial
Intelligence: A guide to Intelligent Systems”, Pearson
Education Limited, England, 2002.
 [Russel, 2003] S. Russell and P. Norvig Artificial
Intelligence: A Modern Approach Prentice Hall, 2003,
Second Edition
 [Patterson, 1990] D. W. Patterson, “Introduction to Artificial
Intelligence and Expert Systems”, Prentice-Hall Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J, USA, 1990.
 [Lindsay, 1997] P. H. Lindsay and D. A. Norman, Human
Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology,