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This session will cover the following:

The Challenge of Curriculum Reform Imperatives of Curriculum Reform Design of the Curriculum The Role of the Teachers in the Implementation of the Curriculum: Key Teaching Qualities Advocating the implementation of the curriculum: School Readiness for Reform Teaching for Excellence: The Teacher as Culture Builder, Leader Builder, and Leader for Learning WHERETO SAMPLE

The Challenge of Curriculum Reform

Maximize the potentials of curriculum change by linking it to increasing student participation and improving the internal efficiency of schooling

FACTS
FLEMMS disclosed that out of 57.4 million Filipinos who are 10-64 years old, 3.8 million ten years old and above do not know how to read and write
9.2 million are not functionally literate

National EFA committee survey revealed that 7 21 years old, 65% do not participate in any community activities; 37% can sing the national anthem; 38% can recite the Panatang Makabayan 90.32% of the total population of children 6-11 years old enrolled at the start of the school year

9.68 % or 1.2 million children most likely will eventually join the ranks of the adult illiterate For every 1000 Grade I entrants, 312 or 31.2% will leave school before finishing Grade 6 249 or 24.9% will finish the 6-year program at an average of 9.6 years, each one repeating some grade levels two to three times

439 or 43.9% will graduate in 6 years Only 6 will have sufficient mastery of English, Science and mathematics For every 1000 entrants (secondary) to first year high school, 389 or 38.9 will leave school without completing four years 353 or 35.3% will graduate after repeating two to three times

353 or 35.3% will graduate after repeating two to three times 248 or 24.8% will graduate within the required four years A very small number of high school graduates will have acquired the necessary competencies

Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils


(based on cohort of Grade I pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008-2009) Public and Private

PHILIPPINES
100 74 66 65 46

20

16

Grade 1

Grade 4

Elem Graduates

HS New Entrants

HS Graduates

College New Entrants

College Graduates

NAT MPS Secondary Education Level Philippines


60 40 20 0 Philippines

2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 37.75 46.8 44.33 46.64 49.26

Provide opportunities for children to develop 21st Century Core Skills

What we need to do together


If we can strengthen the development in our schools of the most demanded workforce skills: communication, critical thinking, flexibility, problem solving, creativity, and technological fluency, then we will succeed in preparing our children for work and for lifelong learning.

We need to strengthen the core curriculum.

Digital Age Literacy


Basic scientific, mathematical, and technological literacies Visual and information literacies Cultural literacy and global awareness

Inventive Thinking
Adaptability/ability to manage complexity Curiosity, creativity, and risk taking Higher-order thinking and sound reasoning

Effective Communication
Teaming, collaboration, and interpersonal skills Personal and social responsibility Interactive communication skills

High Productivity
Ability to prioritize, plan, and manage for results Effective use of real-world tools Ability to create relevant, high-quality products

What should continue?

What should change?

What should change?


The general tendency among teachers to teach for facts, rather than for thinking Results of national and international assessments confirm our students poor conceptual understanding. Teaching has been too focused on covering the ground.

What should change?

Teaching practices that prevent our children from thinking Teachers need to teach for understanding, and do it by design.

What should continue (but needs to be taken to a higher level)?


Learning as meaning-making Learning as integrative Authentic assessment

Imperatives of Curriculum Reform

New needs, new curriculum

The curriculum must remain responsive to national development goals.

To develop a highly competent, protect The State shallcivic spirited, the skilled To promote Filipino anddevelop lifethe right Provide quality basic learners by providing them and God-loving of all citizens equality education that is basic competencies in literacy Filipino youth education at all levels and and equitably critical thinking numeracy, accessible actively participated shall take appropriate steps and learning skills, lay the to all and and desirable in and contribute self to make such education values to become for lifefoundation caring, towards the to all. accessible building reliant, productive, socially long learning and of a humane, healthy aware, patriotic, and service for the responsible citizens. and productive common good. society

Lean is better.

Curriculum reform as a process of continuous improvement

Features of the Curriculum


Lean- focuses on essential understandings Sets high expectations (standards-based) Rich and challengingprovides for enrichment programs designed for students multiple intelligences Develops readiness and passion for work and lifelong learning

SPA SPS S&T Core Curr. Tech-Voc SPED SPFL

SPJ

Design of the Curriculum

Conventional Curriculum Design

Content

Objectives

Materials

Assessment

Strategies

Feedback

Backward Design (Understanding By Design)

Outcomes

Instructional/Learning Plan

Assessment

The 3-Stage Design of the Curriculum


identify desired results;

determine acceptable evidence;

plan learning experiences and instruction.


Source: Wiggins, G. and Kline, E. (2010). Understanding by Design (handout)

Essential Content/ Objectives Understandings Performance (knowledge/skills) Standards

Essential Questions

Results/Outcomes
Products/ Performances Assessment Assessment Criteria/ Tools

Learning Plan

Learning Activities

Resources/ Materials

Results/Desired Outcomes

Defines what students should be able to know and do at the end of the program, course, or unit of study; generally expressed in terms of overall goals, and specifically defined in terms of content and performance standards

What learning standards are for


They express what students should know and be able to do to demonstrate their learning. They set clear performance expectations for students, helping them understand what they need to do to meet the expectations. They guide teachers in designing instruction and assessment around what is important to learn.

Learning standards may be classified into Content standards, which specify the essential knowledge (includes the most important and enduring ideas, issues, principles and concepts from the disciplines), skills and habits of mind that should be taught and learned. They answer the question, What should students know and be able to do?

Performance standards, which express the degree or quality of proficiency that students are expected to demonstrate in relation to the content standards. They answer the question, How well must students do their work? or At what level of performance would the student be appropriately qualified or certified?

Essential Understandings
These are the big and enduring ideas at the heart of the discipline.

Essential Questions
These are open-ended, provocative questions that spark thinking and further inquiry into the essential meanings and understandings.

Assessment
It defines acceptable evidence of students attainment of desired results. It determines authentic performance tasks that the student is expected to do to demonstrate the desired understandings. It defines the criteria against which the students performances or products shall be judged.

Products and Performances


Students demonstrate conceptual understanding, and content and skill acquisition or show evidence of their learning through products and performances. Products and performances promote selfunderstanding, self-monitoring, and selfassessment. They include opportunities for authentic audiences to experience and critique results They permit choices and combinations of oral, written, visual, and kinesthetic modes

Facets of Understanding

Concept

A student who has understanding of a current event should be able to do the following:

Explain the event Interpret it Apply it Give his/her own perspective about the event Show empathy with the people who figure in the event Reveal self-knowledge about the event

A student who has understanding of a current event should be able to do the following:

We want the students to


Explain why, for example, the MILF is waging war against the government. Interpret the message that the MILF is conveying when it drives away the residents of a community and thereafter occupies it. Apply their knowledge of the effects of conflicts in predicting what the outcome of this conflict might be. Give their perspective on what could influence the MILF to go back to the negotiation table.

A student who has understanding of a current event should be able to do the following:

Share their thoughts about why the MILF believes its actions are justified (Empathy) Express their level of confidence about making a judgment on the crisis in Mindanao in light of what they have read or heard, or the background knowledge they have about the local history of the people of Mindanao (Self Knowledge)

Instructional/Learning Activities
The learning activities are aligned with the standards and are designed to promote attainment of desired results. They include instructional resources, both digital and non-digital that students will need to perform the activities and produce the products and performances.

We need to prepare our children for a competitive future.


The future is NOW!

Functional Literacy for All

The Role of the Teachers in the Implementation of the Curriculum

Flexibility

Openness to change

Profiting from diversity

Implementing the curriculum and being accountable for higher learning outcomes

The curriculum works only if

teachers teach well.

Advocating the implementation of the new curriculum

Child-friendly

school Learner characteristics Participation Rate

Child-friendly school Teacher capacity

Retention Rate

Curriculum

Policies

School climate

Child-friendly school

Achievement Level

Completion Rate

Child-friendly

school

Teaching for Excellence

The Teacher as Culture Builder

CULTURE OF EXCELLENCE INTEGRITY ACCOUNTABILITY MAKA-DIYOS MAKATAO MAKABAYAN MAKAKALIKASAN

The Teacher as Builder of Student Leadership and Competencies

Teaching for Learning

The learning-centered teacher moves from working with individual student to working with teams of students in order to promote student learning. S S
S

S S

S S
S

S S
S

SS SS SS SS

SS

SSS SSS SSS SSS SSSS SSSS SSSS SSSSS SSSSS

U N D E R STAN D I N G

Content Standard

Perf. Standard

Assessment

WHERETO

Transfer++ (Create, Add value)

Firm Up

Deepen

Explore

The learning-centered teacher focuses on:


Ensuring that students learn; Building a culture of collaboration; and Achieving results.

WHERETO
W- How shall we help students know where theyre
headed and why theyre going there? Where is the unit/lesson going? What is expected? In what ways will students be evaluated?

H- How shall we hook and engage students interest


through thought-provoking experiences at the beginning of each instructional episode?

WHERETO
E- What experiences shall we provide to help
students make their understandings real? How shall we equip them for success throughout the unit or course?

R- How shall we cause students to reflect,


revisit, revise, and rethink?

E- How shall students express their


understandings and engage in meaningful selfevaluation?

WHERETO
T- How shall we tailor (differentiate)
our instruction to address the unique strengths and needs of every learner? O- How shall we organize learning experiences so that students move from teacher-guided and concrete activities to independent applications that emphasize growing conceptual understandings?
Ref. Brown, J. (2004). Making the Most of Understanding by Design. VA:ASCD.

Learning/Instructional Plan
I. Explore
Diagnose. Activate prior knowledge. Clarify expectations and how learning shall be assessed: standards; products/performances; criteria, tools. Hook and engage student interest. Ask EQ; encourage student questions; welcome tentative responses as guide to further exploration.

Learning/Instructional Plan
II. Firm Up
Provide a variety of learning resources (books, videos, readings/documents, webbased resources, etc.) and differentiated activities to validate responses to EQ; process students meanings and check these against the EU. Encourage students to reflect, revise, or rethink their understanding. Check for understanding; provide feedback; check against content standard.

Learning/Instructional Plan
III. Deepen
Provide a variety of learning resources and differentiated activities/learning experiences in similar contexts to further validate student understanding. Encourage students to reflect, rethink, revise their understanding. Have students express their understanding Check for mastery of EU; provide feedback; check against content standard.

Learning/Instructional Plan
IV. Transfer
Provide for transfer of learning to a new or different context. Evaluate product/performance; check against performance standard.

SAMPLE

First Year

SCIENCE

Quarter I Scientific Methods and Space Science

TEACHING Should reflect the instructional approaches most appropriate to the goals ( not what is easiest or most comfortable for the teacher). Should employ resources most appropriate to the goals (not simply march through a textbook or commercial program).

Be responsive to differences in learners readiness, interests, and preferred ways of learning.

Understanding By Design (UbD)

NOT

B U

Back to
Usual Design

Balik Ugali

Dati

General Standard
The learner demonstrates understanding of basic science concepts and processes in an integrative way to solve problems critically, think innovatively/creatively and make informed decisions in order to protect the environment, conserve resources and sustain quality life.

Quarter 1 Scientific Methods and Space Science


Stage 1: Results/Outcomes
Standard Essential Performance Understanding Question

Content

The learner demonstrates understanding of scientific methods.

Stage 1: Results/Outcomes
Standard Content Essential Understanding Question

Performance

Learners perform in groups at least one teacher-guided community-based investigation using scientific methods

Stage 1: Results/Outcomes
Standard Content Performance Essential

Understanding

Question

Scientific methods are valuable when internalized as a process to solve problems in life.

Stage 1: Results/Outcomes
Standard Content Performance Essential Understanding

Question

When do scientific methods become valuable?

Stage 2 : Assessment Product/ Performance


At the level of Understanding Performance

A community-based science investigation using scientific methods

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

EXPLANATION How is scientific knowledge acquired and validated? Criteria: a. Thorough (explaining all needed steps of scientific methods used until conclusions are reached to generate scientific knowledge; and explaining how results of science investigations are subjected to review and testing of other scientists) b. Clear (expressing with clarity scientific thought in oral or written form) c. Justifiable ( providing depth and breadth of scientific reasoning)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

INTERPRETATION Why is it important to translate the data collected through tables and graphs while using scientific methods? Criteria: a.Meaningful ( giving brief yet substantial discussion on the importance of graphing/ tabulating data while using scientific methods)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

b. Illustrative (using given graphed or tabulated data to show relationships or connections between organizing or transforming raw data and the provision of a more compact and organized way based on specific purposes; and how relationships or connections can be used in determining patterns and trends)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

APPLICATION How will you use scientific methods in solving problems at home/community (e.g. Increase of insect pests) considering economic, social, cultural and other factors? Criteria: a. Appropriate (illustrating how scientific methods can be used/ adapted/ customized in solving problems at home or community) b. Practical( discussing how scientific methods can be done easily to solve a problem at home or in the community)

Stage 2 : Assessment

Product/ Performance

At the level of

Understanding

Performance

PERSPECTIVE How are approaches/ procedures of investigations done by some scientists different/ similar from those of others? Criteria: a. Insightful (providing similarities and differences on the approaches/ procedures after considering all situations/ views)

Stage 2 : Assessment

Product/ Performance

At the level of

Understanding

Performance

b. Credible (using authoritative sources of information while expounding similarities and differences)

c. Critical-minded (combining research, knowledge of historical context, and balanced judgment to prove similarities and differences; becoming skeptical of another view point based on very small sample of data; distinguishing between irrelevant and relevant or inaccurate and accurate information, and appropriate and inappropriate analogies)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

EMPATHY What would it be like to work as a scientist? Would you emulate scientists the way they develop their attitudes and values while using scientific methods? Criteria: a. Perceptive (recognizing scientific attitudes and values developed by scientists while doing scientific methods)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

EMPATHY What would it be like to work as a scientist? Would you emulate scientists the way they develop their attitudes and values while using scientific methods? Criteria: a. Perceptive (recognizing scientific attitudes and values developed by scientists while doing scientific methods)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

b. Open-minded/Receptive (accepting readily/ willingly that these scientific attitudes and values must be developed by scientists and oneself) c. Sensitive/Responsive (exhibiting how scientists develop scientific attitudes and values while using scientific methods)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of

Understanding

Performance

SELF-KNOWLEDGE Question learners need to ask themselves: How can I give my best contribution to the community using scientific methods? Criteria: a. Reflective (becoming aware of ones limitations in applying scientific methods, and of how ones thoughts are influenced/ shaped by these) b. Responsive (reacting positively as a result of having scientific methods changed ones view; reacting positively to how the learner can use scientific methods in the community)

Stage 2 : Assessment

Product/ Performance

At the level of

Understanding

Performance

c. Efficient ( expounding how time and resources can be used productively, how safety measures can be done throughout the investigation, and how data can be recorded objectively or honestly) d. Effective (discussing how the desired/ expected results/outputs can be achieved after using scientific methods)

Stage 2 : Assessment
Product/ Performance At the level of Understanding

Performance

Performance assessment of a science investigation based on the following criteria: Community-based Using scientific methods

Change is inevitable. Progress is optional.


-Anonymous