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Parallel processing speedup performance laws and their characteristics

Sukhnandan Kaur M-tech(CSE) 17

Use Amdahl's Law and Gustafson's law to measure the speedup factor Characteristics

What is Amdahl's law

Amdahls law states that the speedup achieved through parallelization of a program is limited by the percentage of its workload that is inherently serial We can get no more than a maximum speedup equal to 1 / (s + p / N )

What is Gustafsons law

Gustafsons law states that, with increasing data size, the speedup obtained through parallelization increases, because the parallel work increases with data size The speedup factor is S + N ( 1 S )

In details
Amdahl's Law Gustafson's law

Amdahl law: quantify parallelizability

Amdahl's law is named after computer achitect Gene Amdahl, and was made in 1967 when Amdahl was working in IBM Amdahl's Law quantifies the theoretical speedup that can be obtained by parallelizing a computational load among a set number of processors

An example parallel process of time 10:

S - Serial or non-parallel portion A - All A parts can be executed concurrently B - All B parts can be executed concurrently All A parts must be completed prior to executing the B parts Executed on a single processor: S A A A A B B B B S

Classic Model of Parallel Processing

Executed in parallel on 4 processors: A A B B B B


Multiple Processors available (4) A Process can be divided into serial and parallel portions The parallel parts are executed concurrently Serial Time: 10 time units Parallel Time: 4

Amdahls Law (Analytical Model)

Speedup 1 SerialTime ParallelTime , where

(1 ) n

Analytical model of parallel speedup from 1960s Parallel fraction () is run over n processors taking /n time The part that must be executed in serial (1- ) gets no

fraction of work that can be done in parallel n number of processors

Shortcomings of Amdahls law

Using Amdahl's Law as an argument against massively parallel processing is not valid The serial percentage is not practically obtainable

We have Gustafsons law

In 1988, John Gustafson refined Amdahl's model Adding due consideration for large-scale resources and tasks View an example to prove that why we need Gustafsons law


Equations of Gustafsons law


Compare the two laws

Amdahls law: Suppose two cities are 60 km apart, a car has spent one hour travelling the first 30 km. No matter how fast it drives the last 30 km, it is impossible to achieve 90 km/h before arriving the destination


Compare the two laws (Contd)

Gustafsons law: Suppose a car has already been travelling for some time at speed of less than 90km/h, and when given enough time and distance to travel, the cars average speed can reach 90km/h as long as it drives faster than 90 km/h for some time. And also the average speed can reach 120km/h and even 150km/h as long as it drives fast enough in the following part


Performance Expandability and Scalability High Throughput High Availability


Amdahls presumption of fixed data size is obviously a restriction which does not map into reality for many problems Both laws are in fact different perspective over the same truth one sees data size as fixed and the other sees the relation as a function of data size


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