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Internet Basics
Internet Services Client/Server

The renaissance of interest in the web that we call Web 2.0 has reached the mainstream.
Tim OReilly

Billions of queries stream across the servers of these Internet servicesthe aggregate thoughtstream of humankind, online.
John Battelle, The Search

People are using the web to build things they have not built or written or drawn or communicated anywhere else.
Tim Berners-Lee

Some people take what we contribute and extend it and contribute it back [to Ruby on Rails]. That's really the basic open source success story.
David Heinemeier Hansson, interviewed by Chris Karr at

Instructions to command the computer to perform actions and make

decisions) JavaScript and PHP are popular software development languages for webbased applications.

Computer development
Computer use increasing in most fields Computer costs and size decreasing
Abundance of silicon drives down prices of silicon-chip technology

Allows development of applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs)

Multimedia capabilities
Integration with the Internet and World Wide Web

Device capable of
Performing computations Making logical decisions

Works billions of times faster than human beings Fastest supercomputers today
Perform hundreds of billions of additions per second

Sets of instructions that process data Guide computer through orderly sets of actions specified by

computer programmers

Computer system
Comprised of various hardware devices

Keyboard Screen Disks Memory DVD drives Processing Units

Every computer divided into six units

1. Input unit
Receiving section of computer Obtains data from input devices

Usually a keyboard, mouse, disk, scanner, uploads (photos and videos) and networks (Internet)
Places data at disposal of other units

2. Output unit
Shipping section of computer Puts processed info on various output devices

Screens, paper printouts, speakers

Makes info available outside the computer (e.g., Internet)

3.Memory unit
Rapid access, low capacity warehouse Retains information entered through input unit Retains info that has already been processed until can be sent to

output unit Often called memory, primary memory, or random access memory (RAM)

4. Arithmetic and Logic Unit

Manufacturing section of computer Performs calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division) Contains decision mechanisms and can make comparisons

5. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Administrative section of computer Coordinates and supervises other sections Multiple CPUs (multiprocessors)

6. Secondary storage unit

Long-term, high-capacity warehouse Stores programs or data not currently being used by other units on

secondary storage devices (like CDs and DVDs) Takes longer to access than primary memory

Internet is an open system:

all specifications are available to the general public,
any company can build a compatible technology.

A communication protocol is an agreement that

specifies a common language two computers use to exchange messages. TCP/IP

A network of thousands of networks. Heterogeneous computers running different operating systems,

but the same network protocol. Open architecture. Peer-to-peer Technology (does not distinguish among the connected computers). Unlimited Expandability (can add a new network to the Internet easily) Multiple Connectivity (capable of having more than one connection to Internet) Flexibility: (IP)
independent of network speed LAN, WAN technology no packet loss

Reliability: TCP constantly monitors conditions on the Internet

and automatically adapts. Efficiency: does not require extensive computation to send/receive packet, runs on small computers too.

E-mail Newsgroups BBS (Bulletin Board Service) FTP (File Transfer) Telnet (Remote System Access) rsh (Remote Shell) rlogin (Remote login) rcp (Remote file copy) Information Browsing and Content Search (Gopher, WAIS, WWW)

nslookup (Network Server Lookup)

The Early Years of Internet (1960-70)

Developed by DoDs ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), ARPANET is the backbone of the Internet

Two important developments of Internet: (1982)

IP (Internet Protocol) provides the basic

communication, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) provides additional facility for the applications. TCP/IP.

The growth
ARAP expanded the Internet to include all the military

sites that connected to the ARPANET in 1983. Internet meets Unix: TCP/IP was included in the BSD Unix. The Internet doubles in size in one year (early 80s). Exponential growth.



Every Computer is assigned a unique address

(Internet Address, or IP Address).

IP Address Syntax:

The address is not random. Fortunately, we

dont have to memorize the IP address. We can use domain name such as [].

C:\D\USER>tracert Tracing route to [] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 ms 2 ms [] 2 ms

<10 ms 1 ms 1 ms

Request timed out. Flavia-vlan113.sw-e.UH.EDU []

3 1 ms 1 ms [] 4 2 ms 1 ms [] 5 1 ms 1 ms Trace complete.

Computer names must be unique on the Internet. Name = "machine (subdomain) name" . "domain name" . "type" . ["country"] A domain name identifies the organization that owns the computer and the type of the organization. A fully qualified name is translated to an equivalent IP address by the DNS (Domain Name Server).

There are many DNS on the Internet. A computer has

to know the location of one DNS. IP Addresses and Domain Names are unrelated even though they looks the same.

The Internet domain name-space is tree-structured,

with top-level domains such as:


commercial establishments educational institutions government agencies MILNET hosts


Server: Address: Non-authoritative answer: Name: Address:

Most network applications involve a server and a


A Server process provides a specific service on a

host machine that offers such as service. Each network-wide service has its own unique port number that is identical across all hosts. Examples: ftp (port 21), www (port 80). The first 512 ports (port 0 to 511) are reserved for network-wide applications registered by the InterNIC. The next 512 ports are semi-official and are used for standard services such as remote UNIX login at 513, and remote printing at 515. Higher numbered ports are used for local applications.

>more services tcpmux echo echo discard discard systat daytime daytime netstat chargen chargen ftp-data ftp telnet

1/tcp 7/tcp 7/udp 9/tcp 9/udp 11/tcp 13/tcp 13/udp 15/tcp 19/tcp 19/udp 20/tcp 21/tcp 23/tcp

sink null sink null users

ttytst source ttytst source

A client process on a host connects with a server on

another host to obtain its services. Different client programs are required for different services.

Host A

Host B