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THE NEW IMMIGRANTS

Chapter 14.1

Old Immigrants

Old Immigrants
Protestant
Northern

Europeans (German, Irish, English, etc)

Old immigrants came with entire families to settle in the US. Spoke English and had skills (most of the time)

Old Immigrants

Irish Catholic Immigrants


Initially

faced discrimination Irish spoke English which helped

German Immigrants
Good

reputation of their Protestant counterparts helped them become accepted.

New Immigrants

New Immigrants
Southern

and Eastern Europeans Became the majority of immigrants into America until the beginning of WWI. (up to 70 percent of total)

Push\Pull Factors

Push Factors (reasons for wanting to leave home country.)


Famine War

Poverty

Largest group of political refugees were Russian and East European Jews who fled religious persecution.

Push\Pull Factors

Pull Factors (reasons for wanting to move to a new country)

Economic Opportunity Plentiful, cheap land 1862 Homestead Act gave free land to settlers in exchange for agreeing to work the land for a period of time. Religious freedom

Chain Immigrants those who joined family or friends already settled in America.

The Immigrant Experience

Long Journey
Families

brought only the bare essentials needed to start a new life. Trip Across the Atlantic
Most

immigrants traveled in steerage the worst accommodations on the ship.


No private rooms Dirty and crowded

Asian Immigration

While European immigrants were arriving at Ellis Island, Asian immigrants were arriving at Angel Island in San Francisco, California. It was harder to gain entry to the US at Angel Island than at Ellis Island.

Asian Immigration

Chinese Exclusion Act Chinese immigrants were turned away unless they could prove they were citizens or had relatives living in America.

Opportunities and Challenges

Most immigrants stayed in cities; close to industrial jobs in factories. They lived in ethnic neighborhoods, called ghettoes with others who shared:
Native

language Religion Culture

Opportunities and Challenges

Cities began to have huge immigrant populations.


and San Francisco 40 percent of the city was made up of immigrants. New York City 4 out of 5 New Yorkers were foreign-born or had foreign-born parents.
Chicago

Americanization helping immigrants learn English and adopt American dress and diet.
Immigrants
Polish

helped one another through fraternal organizations.


National Alliance, etc

NYC Immigrant Population Today

NYC Immigrant Population Today

Opportunities and Challenges

Melting Pot (past)


White

people of all different nationalities blended to create a single culture. This idea excluded nonEuropean immigrants

Opportunities and Challenges

Salad Bowl (today)


The

salad bowl concept suggests that the integration of the many different cultures of United States residents combine like a salad, as opposed to the more prolific notion of a cultural melting pot.

Many immigrants retained their cultural heritage.


Catholic

immigrants established schools and churches.

Opportunities and Challenges

Nativism
A

belief that native-born white Americans were superior to immigrants. Panic of 1896 and other economic conditions created job shortages which encouraged resentment towards immigrants. Why? Religious Intolerance
WASP

White Anglo Saxon Protestants

Protestants were very suspicious of Catholics and Jews.

Immigrants Change America

Immigration fueled industrial growth Acquired citizenship Elected politicians Made their traditions part of American culture
Examples?

Immigrants Change America

Mexican Americans
Developed

effective ranching techniques in the

Southwest.

Chinese, Irish, and Mexican Americans


Built

the transcontinental railroad

Immigrant women worked in mills, factories, and homes as staff.

God Bless America Irving Berlin


While the storm clouds gather far across the sea, Let us swear allegiance to a land that's free. Let us all be grateful for a land so fair, As we raise our voices in a solemn prayer: God bless America, land that I love, Stand beside her and guide her Through the night with a light from above. From the mountains, to the prairies, To the oceans white with foam, God bless America, My home sweet home.