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Made byKunal Tolani X-E

ll the living organisms respond and react to changes in

the enviournment. The changes in the enviournment to which the organisms respond and react are called STIMULI. The living organisms show response to stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, etc. The response of organisms to a stimuli is usually in the form of some movement of their body part. For eg, a man touches a very hot utensil accidently, he quickly pulls his hand away from the hard utensil. The reaction to stimuli is the characterstic property of the living organisms.. The working together of the various organisms in a systematic manner so as to produce a proper response to the stimulus , is called COORDINATION


The plants do not have nervous system and sense organs like eyes, ears and nose etc. like animals, but they can still sense things. The stimuli like light, gravity, chemicals, water and touch are called environment changes. So plants co-ordinate their behaviour by using hormones. The hormones in plants co-ordinate their behaviors by affecting the growth of a plant. And the effect on the growth of the plant can result in the movement of a part of the plant like shoot (stem), or roots etc. The plants responds to various stimuli very slowly by growing because plants have no nervous system, so plants use only hormones for co-ordination. So in most of the cases, the response of a plant to the stimulus cannot be observed immediately. It usually takes a considerable time to observe the effect of a stimulus on a plant. The function of control and co-ordination in plants is performed by chemical substances called



The control and co-ordination in plants is done by plant hormones. The plant hormones are also known as Plant Growth Substances. The growth of a plant can be divided into three stages: 1. cell division, 2. cell differentiation and 3. cell enlargement. These three stages of a plant growth as well as promotion of dormancy, breaking of dormancy, stomata control, falling of leaves, fruit growth, ripening of fruits and ageing in plants are controlled by various plant hormones.

There are four major types of plant hormones which are involved in control and co-ordination in plants. These are as follows: 1. AUXINS:- These are the plant hormones which promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants. They also promote fruit growth. Auxins hormone controls a plants response to light and gravity. Auxins is made by the cells at the tip of the stems and roots. Auxins move away from light and towards gravity. Auxins has opposite effect on the growth


These are the plant hormones which promote Cell enlargement and Cell differentiation in the presence of auxins. Gibberellins help in breaking the seed dormancy and buds. They also promote growth in fruits. Gibberellins hormone is involved mainly in shoot extensions. They stimulates elongation of various plants. 3. CYTOKININS:- These are the plant hormones which promote cell division in plants. Cytokinins also helps in breaking the dormancy of seed and buds. They delay the ageing in leaves. They promote the opening of stomata and also promote the growth of fruit.


4.ABSCISIC ACID:- These are the plant hormones which functions mainly as a growth inhibitor. Abscisic acid promotes the dormancy in the seed and buds (this is the opposite of breaking of dormancy). It also promotes the growth of stomata. Abscisic acid promotes the wilting and falling of leaves (which is also called abscission) it also causes the detachment of flowers and fruits from the plants.

These movements of the plant part are usually caused by an unequal growth in its two regions by the action of plant hormones, under the influence of stimulus. For example, the auxin hormone is made and secreted by the meristematic tissue at the tip of stem (or tip of shoot). This movement (or bending) of the stem has been caused by its growth. So, we can say that the bending of a stem (or shoot) is a growth movement. In fact, the movement in any part of a plant is usually a growth movement. The plant movements is made in response to external stimuli fall into two main categories: Tropisms and nasties :-

A growth movement of a plant part in response to an external stimulus in which the direction of stimulus determines the direction of response is called TROPISM. Tropism is directional movement of the part of a plant caused by its growth. The growth of a plant in response to stimulus can be towards the stimulus or away from stimulus due to which we can have a positive tropism or a negative tropism.

There are five types of tropism: 1. PHOTOTROPISM:- the movement of a plant part in response to light is called phototropism. If the plant move toward light, it is called positive phototropism. On the other hand, if the plant part move away from the light, it is called the negative phototropism. 2. GEOTROPISM:- the movement of a plant in response to gravity is called geotropism

3.CHEMOTROPISM :-the movement of a plant towards chemicals is called chemotropism. If the plant moves towards chemicals, it is called positive chemotropism, and if the plant moves away from the chemicals, it is called negative chemotropism. 4.HYDROTROPISM :-The movement of a plant in response to water is called hydrotropism. If the plant moves towards water, it is called positive hydrotropism, and if the plant moves away from the water, it is called the negative hydrotropism. THIGMOTROPISM:-The directional growth movement of a plant in response to touch of an organism is called thigmotropism.


The movement of a plant in response to an external stimulus in which the direction of plant may or may not be towards the stimulus is called the NASTIC MOVEMENTS(OR NASTIES). The direction of nastic movements is not determined by the direction of the stimulus is applied. the folding up of the leaves of a sensitive plant on touching is not a growth movement but the opening and closing of petals of flowers by the action of sunlight is growth movement.


->Germination of seeds(or breaking of the seed dormancy) ->Growth of roots, stem, and leaves ->Movement of stomata(or stomatal movement) in leaves ->Flowering of plants ->Ripening of fruits.

The multicelluar animals have specialized cells called the NERVE CELLS. A system made up of nerve cells is called the NERVOUS SYSTEM. The control and coordination in higher animals is called vertebrates takes place through nervous system as well as hormonal system called endocrine system. There a 5 sense organs in our body. The sense organs contain receptors. A receptor is a cell or group of cells in a sense organ which is sensitive to particular type of stimulus such as light, sound, smell, taste, heat, pressure,


The function of the nervous system is to coordinate the activities of our body. The nervous system helps all other system of our body to work together. The nervous system also coordinates with the thing which we dont have to think about like heart beats and breathing. The nervous system receives information from the surroundings, process it, Interprets it and respond quickly.


The cell body of a neuron is like a typical animal cell which contains cytoplasm and a nucleus. A number of long and thin fibres are stretching out from the cell body of a neuron. They are called nerve fibres. The shorter fibres on the body of a neuron are called dendrites. The longest fibres on the cell body of a neuron is called axon. The axon has an insulating and protective sheets(or cover) of myelin around it(myelin is made of fat and protein). The messages which the neurons transmit in the nervous system are in the form of electrical impulses. The dendrites pick up the nerve impulses from receptors.

They pass the impulses to the cell body and the along the axon. The axon passes the impulse to another neuron through a junction called synapse. Any two neurons in the nervous system do not join to one another completely. There is always a very small gap between the two neurons. The gap is called a synapse. The nerve impulses are carried over this small gap between a pair of neurons by means of a chemical substance called neurotransmitter substances. This impulse travels from the dendrite to the cell body, and then along the axon to its end. At the end of the axon , the electrical impulse sets off the release of some chemicals. These chemicals cross the gap, or synapse, and start a similar electrical

Impulses in a dendrite of the next neuron. This is a general scheme of how nervous impulses travel in the body.


The simplest form of response in the nervous system is REFLEX ACTIONS. This is a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus which is not a under the voluntary control of the brain. A reflex action is one which we perform automatically. It is a comparatively simple form of behavior in which the same stimulus produces the same response every time. Moving our hand away on touching a hot plate is an example of reflex actions.


For example, coughing is a reflex action which clears our wind pipe. The pupil of our eyes get smaller in bright light. This reflex action protects the retina of our eyes from damage due to too much light. The pupils of our eyes get bigger in dim light so as to help us see properly even in dim light . The pathway taken by nerve impulses in a reflex action is called the REFLEX ARC. Reflex arcs allow rapid response. Nerves from all over the body meet in a bundle in the spinal cord on their way to the brain. Reflex arcs are formed in this spinal cord itself, although the information input also

brain. Reflex arcs have evolved in animals because the thinking process of the brain is not fast enough. Many animals have very little or none of the complex neuron network needed for the thinking. So it is quiet likely that reflects arcs have evolved as efficient ways of functioning in the absence of true thought process. Even after complex neuron networks have come into existence, reflex arcs continue to be more efficient for a quick responses.


BRAIN is the highest coordinating centre in the body. The brain is located inside the skull of our body. It is protected by a bony box in the skull called CRANIUM. The brain is broadly divided into three regions which are as follows: 1.FOREBRAIN:-It consists mainly of cerebrum, which is the main thinking part of the brain. It is the site of our faculties such as learning, reasoning, intelligence, personality and memory. All our thoughts, sensation, action, and movements are controlled by the cerebrum. All the voluntary actions of the body are coordinated by the cerebrum.

2.MIDBRAIN:-It does not have the further divisions. It controls reflex movements of the head, neck and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli and also controls the reflex movements of eyes, muscles, change in pupil size and shape of the eye lens. 3.HINDBRAIN:-IT consist of three centers called the pons, cerebellum and medulla. Pons take part in regulating respiration. Cerebellum helps in maintaining the posture and balance of the body and also enables to make precise and accurate movements . It coordinates smooth movements such as walking, bending, dancing etc. Medulla controls involuntary actions such as heart beat, breathing etc.

Hormones are chemical substances secreted in very small amounts by specialized tissue in the body called endocrine glands. These hormones coordinate the activities of living organisms and their growth. Hormones are made inside the body of an organisms in very small amounts. They are of the following types:1.Pituary glands.:-it is situated in the brain. Hormone secreted is the growth hormone

2.Pineal glands:-located in the brain. Hormone secreted is the melatonin. 3.Thyroid glands:- located in the neck region. Hormone secreted is the thyroxine. 4.Parathyroid glands:- located just behind the thyroid glands. Hormone secreted is the parthorme. 5.Thynus glands:-located near the heart. Hormone secreted is thyroxine. 6.Pancreas:- located below the stomach. Hormone secreted is insulin. 7.Adernal glands:- located above the kidneys. Hormone secreted is aderlaine. 8. Testes:-found only in male. Hormone secreted is testostrene. 9.ovary:- located in females. Hormone secreted is oestrogen.