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Facultad de Medicina Escuela de Medicina Ingls para la Salud II

Cancer
Detection & treatment

By: Joselyn Reyes O.

CANCER
Second Opinion

Detection
Early detection

Treatment

Definition
Side effects Exams and tests Nutrition

Methods of treatment

Symptoms

What is cancer?
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth.

How can cancer be detected?


Regular medical checkups and do certain self-exams. Cancer can be found early, even if a person has no symptoms. Other exams for people with a high risk of cancer.

Exams for both men and women


Skin. Check for new growths, sores that do not heal, changes in the size, shape or color of any moles, other changes in the skin.

Exams for both men and women


Colon and rectum. Cancer of the colon and rectum can cause bleeding.

Exams for both men and women


Mouth. Changes in the color of the lips, gums, tongue or inner cheeks, and for scabs, cracks, sores, white patches, swelling or bleeding.

Exams for men


Prostate. Check the prostate gland for hard or lumpy areas. Testicles. Lump, heaviness, swelling, unusual tenderness or pain.

Exams for women


Breast. Mammograms. Show tumors or changes in the breast. Breast exams by a doctor or a nurse. Breast self examination (BSE)

Exams for women


Cervix. Regular pelvic exams. Any change in size or shape of uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder and rectum. Pap test. A sample of cells is checked under a microscope.

What are symptoms of cancer?


Changes in bowel or bladder habits, a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding or discharge, thickening or lump in the breast.

What are symptoms of cancer?


Indigestion or difficulty swallowing, change in a wart or mole, or nagging cough or hoarseness.

How is cancer diagnosed?


Physical exam. Medical story. Tests and exams.

Tests and exams.


Imaging. X- rays, radionuclide scanning, ultrasonography, MRI. Endoscopy. With a thin lighted tube called an endoscope. Laboratory tests. Blood and urine tests.

Tests and exams.


Biopsy. The only sure way to know whether the problem is cancer. Stanging. Studies lymph nodes near the tumor.

How is cancer treated?


Getting a second opinion. Preparing for treatment. Make a list or questions to ask the doctor. Take notes Tape record Have a family member or friends with you.

Methods of treatment.

Methods of treatment
Surgery. Local treatment. Radiation therapy (radiotherapy). Local treatment. Uses high energy rays. External radiation. Internal radiation.

Methods of treatment
Chemotherapy. Systemic treatment with drugs to kill cancer cells. In some cases a catheter is used.

Methods of treatment
Hormone therapy. Surgery, drugs to stop hormone production. Systemic treatment. Biological therapy (Immunotherapy). Bodys natural ability fights infection or disease and protects.

Side effects of cancer treatment.


They depend mainly on type and extent of the treatment Surgery. Pain, patients feel tired or weak for a while. Radiation therapy. Tiredness, skin reactions, loss of appetite. Chemotherapy. Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, hair loss or mouth sores, loss of fertility.

Side effects of cancer treatment.


Hormone therapy. Nausea and vomiting, swelling or weight gain, hot flashes, loss of fertility. Biological therapy. Flu-like symptoms, chills, fever, muscle aches, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

How important is nutrition for cancer patients?

What are clinical trials?


The patient receive the treatment in carefully controlled trials. Doctors can learn which is more effective.

What other support is there for cancer patients?


Doctors, nurses, social workers, family and relatives, support groups.

What does the future hold for cancer patients?


Better ways to detect and treat cancer. Chance or recovery keeps improving. Statistics. Prognosis.

Resources.
Local library or bookstore. Support groups.

Facultad de Medicina Escuela de Medicina Ingls para la Salud II

Cancer
Detection & treatment

By: Joselyn Reyes O.