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INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacology
It from the Greek word: pharmakon (drug) and logy (science/study) A science concerned with the history, sources and physical and chemical properties of drugs as well as the ways in which drugs affect living systems Study of drugs and their actions to the body. came

DO YOU THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO STUDY PHARMACOLOGY??

WHY?

The preparation and administration of medication is almost a daily task of a nurse and is accompanied by great deal of responsibility. The nurse can only administer drugs prescribed by the physician; however, she is legally responsible or accountable for the safe administration of medications. Once the drug is administered, the nurse becomes liable for the predicted effects of that drug.

History of Pharmacology
Alcohol and opium- first medicinal agents used as narcotic analgesics. Cradle of Pharmacology- credited to Ancient Egypt. Ebers Papyrus- 700 different remedies used to treat specific ailments. EBERS MEDICAL PAPYRUSearliest book devoted to medicine. Dioscorides prepared by De Materica Medica, which described 600 different plants and classified them by substance rather than the disease they were intended to treat; source of pharmaceutical knowledge in the 16th century.

Paracelsus- advocated the use of single drugs rather than the mixture or potions, as a mean of treating disease. all things are poisons, for there is nothing without poisonous qualities. It is only the dose which make a thing poison. He was considered as the FATHER OF PHARMACOLOGY William Harvey (17th century)- explained how drugs exert their beneficial or harmful effects through the circulation of blood in the body and introduced IV administration. Francois Magendie and Claude Bernard (19th century)- demonstrated that certain drugs work at specific sites of action within the body.

Golden age of Pharmacology


Lister and Semmelweis- introduced the use of antiseptic to prevent infection during surgery. Ehrlich- discovered antibiotics. Frederick Banting and Charles Bestdiscovered insulin 20th century- developed thousand of drugs; which also altered the practice of medicine.

SUBDIVISIONS OF PHARMACOLOGY

PHARMACODYNAMICSstudy of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs as well as drugs mechanism of action. WHAT THE DRUG DOES TO THE BODY? PHARMACOKINETICS- study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs. WHAT THE BODY DOES TO THE DRUG? PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS- study of how drugs may be used in the treatment of illnesses; study of which drug would be most or least appropriate to use for a specific disease.

PHARMACOGNOSY- study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources; study of the origin of drugs. TOXICOLOGY- study of poisonous effects of drugs. PHARMACY- study of techniques in the preparation, compounding, dispensing and storage of drugs for medicinal use.

questions???....

DRUGS

DRUGS.
A chemical substance that affects living systems by changing their structure or function. Any substance or mixture of substances used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases.

SITES OF DRUG ACTION


o LOCAL- the action is on the site of drugs applied. o E.g. ointments o SYSTEMIC OR GENERAL- via the circulation of the blood and the action is through the different parts of the body.`

SOURCES OF DRUGS
PLANTS- obtained from the dry roots, barks, leaves, flowers and seeds of medicinal plants are prepared for medicinal use. ANIMALS- obtained from glands and other internal organs of animals. MINERAL/ MINERAL PRODUCTS- taken from free elements, both metallic and non- metallic and they are usually in the form of bases, acids and salts. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES- agents that may be made in the laboratory or synthetically prepared.

SIX MAJOR USES OF DRUGS


1. SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENTthe most common drug use; drugs used to relieve disease symptoms. e.g. aspirin to relieve headache and fever 2. PREVENTIVE DRUGS- help the body avoid disease. e.g. hepatitis vaccine 3. DIAGNOSTIC DRUGS- help the physician determine whether a disease is present. e.g. radiopaque dyes

4. CURATIVE DRUGS- eliminate the disease. e.g. antibiotics

5. HEALTH MAINTENANCE DRUGS- help keep the body functioning normally. e.g. insulin
6. CONTRACEPTIVE pregnancy. e.g. oral pills DRUGSprevent

DRUG NOMENCLATURE
CHEMICAL NAME atomic/molecular structure of drug. GENERIC NAME/NON-PROPERTY NAME original designation given to the drug when the drug company applies for approval patents - universally accepted & not capitalized; before drug becomes official, used in all countries - protected by law; not capitalized TRADE/BRAND/PROPRIETY NAME -name given by the drug company that developed it.

- followed by the symbol R or TM, 1st letter is capitalized.

Example: chemical name acetylsalicylic acid generic name aspirin trade name aspilet

CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
1. PRESCRIPTION or LEGEND DRUGS- these are drugs that cannot be purchased without a prescription. Prescription- a written order for medication or other forms of therapy, which specifies precisely the name of the drug and the dosage. Components of a Prescription: o Descriptive patient informationname, address, age and sex of the patient o date o The Rx Symbol- Prescription

o Name and dosage strength of the medication o Dispensing instructions for the pharmacists number sign (#) o Signa or directions for the clientabbreviated as sig. or Sig. o Prescribers name, signature and license number

2.

NONPRESCRIPTION or OVER-the-COUNTER (OTC) DRUGSdrugs that may be legally acquired by the client without a prescription order. 3. INVESTIGATIONAL or EXPERIMENTAL DRUGSdrugs that may be used for clinical testing. Before a drug is to be marketed, series of studies are being performed. 3 phases: Phase I- evaluation of drug in normal human volunteers. Phase II- more detailed evaluation in normal subjects and initial trials for people with disease intended for a certain drug. Phase III- broad clinical trials to evaluate usefulness and effectiveness.

o Human volunteers must sign informed consent and understand potential hazards but they may withdraw at any time. 4. ILLICIT or STREET DRUGS- used and distributed illegally. These drugs may be: Not legal for sale under any circumstances. May be sold legally under certain circumstances (with a prescription) but manufactured illegally or stolen from normal channels of distribution. Used for non- medical purposes, generally to alter mood or feeling.

DRUG STANDARDS and LEGISLATION


a. AMERICAN DRUG STANDARDS United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USP-NF)- the source of drug standards for drug quality and strength, client safety and dosage form. b. INTERNATIONAL DRUG STANDARDS International Pharmacopeia (IP) or Pharmacopoeia Internationalispublished by WHO in an attempt to standardized drugs. The nomenclature of drugs is in Latin and all doses are in metric system.

c. DRUG LEGISLATION Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of 1938prevents the manufacture of poisonous and deleterious drug, food or liquor. Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970promotes drug education and research to prevent drug abuse. Dangerous Drug Act of 1972 or R.A. 6425prohibits the sole administration , possession or use of unlawful prescription of prohibited drugs. Generic Act of 1988 or R.A. 6675- an act to promote, require and ensure the production of adequate supply, distribution, use and acceptance of drugs and medicines identified by their generic names.

DOSAGE FORMS

A. SOLID PREPARATIONS
1. TABLETS- are preparations of powdered drug which are compressed or molded in a small disks and they may differ in size, shape and color. Most contain cornstarch as disintegrating agents. Different forms: Scored tablet- facilitate convenient division.

Enteric coated tablet- prevents tablet from dissolving in the stomach. It is attracted to the alkaline environment of the small intestine.

Layered tablet- separates doses and has different dissolution time.

Pills- single dose unit tablets.

2. CAPSULES- a drug is enclosed in a small globular or cylindrical container made of some digestible or soluble material such as gelatin which may be hard or soft.

Different forms of capsules: hard gelatin capsule- consists of two parts which slide together to enclose the powdered drug.

Soft gelatin capsuledesigned encapsulate medicinal liquids.

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Sustained-action/ sustained-release/ time release capsule- contains beads which are designed to release drugs at different rates while passing through the GIT.

3. LOZENGES OR TROCHES- are flat round or rectangular preparation held in the mouth until they dissolve to furnish medication of the tissues of the oral cavity or throat.

4. POWDERS- a preparation in the form of fine particles either of a single drug in combination wrapped separately in powder papers.

B. LIQUID PREPARATIONS (Solutions) Solutionaqueous liquid preparations containing one or more substances completely dissolved. Solute is a dissolved substance; Solvent is the substance in which solute is dissolved (water). Different forms: Syrup- concentrated solution of sucrose in distilled water, which usually contains medical ingredients.

Suspension- a solution which contains solid drug particles that are suspended in a suitable liquid medium. It is applied orally, through the skin or by injection but NEVER via intravenous.

Tincture- a solution of substance usually nonvolatile plants is alcohol or in mixture of alcohol and other.

Spirit- alcoholic solutions of volatile drugs, also known as essences.

Magma- suspension of inorganic substance in water, the amount of precipitated material is very large in comparison with the volume of water and the resultant substance is thick and whitish.

Elixir- solutions containing alcohol, sugar and water. Used primarily when drug willnnot dissolve in water.

Emulsion- dispersion of small droplet of water in oil or oil in water.

C. TOPICAL PREPARATIONS (External Use) Lotion- may be clear solution, suspension or emulsion. It contains water, alcohol and other solutions. It is applied on the skin which may serve as protection, astringent, cleanser and anti- pruritic.

Spray- supplied by an atomizer to a disease part usually to the nose or throat or burns.

Ointment- a greasy, semi-solid preparation, no water contents and not water removable.

Cream- usually white, non-greasy, semi-solid preparation and can be removed by water.

Gel or jelly- usually clear or translucent, semisolid but liquefies upon application to the skin.

Tape or patch- patch-like device, which release drug gradually through the skin and into the blood stream.

Suppository- a solid preparation molded into shape suitable for insertion into an external orifice of the body such as rectum.

D. PARENTERAL PREPARATIONS

Ampules- glass containers that usually contain a single dose of medication.

Vials- glass containers that contain one or more doses of a sterile medication.

Large Volume Solution Containers- intravenous solutions that available in both glass and plastic containers in a variety of types and concentrations.

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