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Different types of RCDs

Purely AC Applications Type AC

pe AC with built-in time delay Type AC - S

ications with AC and DC components Type A

Type A with built-in time delay Type A - S


Different types of RCDs

What about Hpi ?

All the above + more …


i.e Type A + more …..
Why Hpi ?
Required for the following
applications :
Special Loads

Disturbed Network

Extreme Climatic Conditions


Special Loads
Equipments using rectified / half wave

☛ Leakage after rectification is Pulsating DC

Special core of Hpi suitable to sense pulsating DC.

☛ Hence, it trips on harmful leakage current.

Thereby ensuring improved human protection

Ex. Power Control Equipment, Lighting Control Dimmer, DC Motors,SMPS,


Hair Dryers, Variable Speed Drives Etc.
Equipments working on high frequencie

☛ Leakage is high frequency

☛ Special core of Hpi suitable to sense high frequen


leakage

☛ Hence, it trips if leakage is above harmful level.

☛ Thereby ensuring improved human protection

Ex. SMPS, Variable Speed Drives, Industrial Furnaces,


Power electronics equipments etc.
Loads generating high frequency emissi

☛ Loads have filtering condensers


connected between
Phase - Earth & Neutral - Earth as per
☛ High frequency emissions
IEC directives
diverted to earth
☛ Transient leakage condition
generated
pecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance tripp

Thereby ensures service continuity


Ex. Flourescent lighting with electronic ballast, Dimmers, Luminous Signs,
Telecom transmitters, microwave ovens etc.
Switching of loads with high earth capacitance

Equipped with interference filter

Permanent leakage exists. But not because of


insulation failure
ight additional transient leakage can cross sensitivit
evel of RCD.
ecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance trippin

Thereby ensures service continuity


Ex. Computers, Printers, Copiers, X-ray installation, VCDs, ACD,
Cash Register etc.
Use of VSP downstream to RCD

VSP passes surge current to earth

Transient leakage condition created

ecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance trippin

sures possibility of having close voltage surge protec


ownstream with continuity of service
Disturbed Network
Switching of Inductive Loads

☛ During opening & closing, transient voltage


surge is generated
Transient leakage condition created

ecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance trippin

Thereby ensures service continuity

Ex. Neon Lights, Induction Motors, Transformers, Electromagnets,


switching of MV switchgear etc.
Lightning Surges

Generates transient leakage current

ecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance trippin

Thereby ensures service continuity


Capacitive Effects of long lines

long cable networks - capacitance formed between


cable & earth

or AC current, capacitance discharges current


which is ∝ lenght
☛ Transient leakage generated

ecial Electronic Circuit of Hpi avoids nuisance trippin

Thereby ensures service continuity

Ex. Ground heating systems, Large building Installations, etc .


Extreme Climatic
Conditions
Sub Zero Temperature

☛ For temperature ≤ 0 0 C
Electromagnetic chara of core of Hpi type RCD rem
unchanged
☛ Special Core of Hpi enables tripping
-- can operate between - 25 0 C to + 55 0 C

Thereby ensuring improved human protection

Ex. Cold Storage, Medicine Refrigerator, Hilly Areas etc.


Hpi type RCDs ensures :

✔ Service continuity
✔ Improved human protection

for

➲ Special Loads
➲ Disturbed Networks
➲ Extreme Climatic Conditions
Where loss of data is harmful
➣ Computer Installations in Banks, IT Parks, Army etc

Where discontinuity of supply is harmful


➣ ATMs, OT Equipments,etc
➣ Cold Storage, Refrigeration systems
➣ Data transmission system
Isolated installations difficult to reach
➣ Weather stations
➣ Radio & TV transmission towers

In rough conditions
➣ Ground heating systems
RCCBs

✒ 2 pole and 4 pole

✒ Rated currents 25, 40, 63 and

✒ Sensitivity 30 mA
RCBOs

✒ SP+N (neutral on left side)

✒ Rated currents from 10 A to 4

✒ Breaking capacity 6000 A

✒ Sensitivity 30 mA