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Presented By: GROUP B
Masitah Hayati Binti Mad Isa Ahmad Fazli Bin Mohd Khodri Nur Masrizah Binti Maznan Noor Izwany Binti Ahmad Mardhiyah Binti Mustafa

Objectives for Today

To describe a model for understanding crosscultural communication and to build awareness of the effects that culture has on business To understand some aspects of the international organizational environment and the role that culture played To understand the barriers that effect the effectiveness of communication in global business environment. To find the best solution and to improve the cross cultural communication in organizational

Do You Know? World Population Composition

If we could shrink the earth's population to a village of precisely 100 people, with all the existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look something like the following: There would be:
57 Asians 21 Europeans 14 from the Western Hemisphere, both north and south 8 Africans

52 would be female 48 would be male

70 would be non-white 30 would be white

89 would be heterosexual 31 would be homosexual

4.1 Cross Cultural Communication

4.1.2 Culture
1. the total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action. 2. the total range of activities and ideas of a group of people with shared traditions, which are transmitted and reinforced by members of the group; e.g., the Mayan culture. 3. the artistic and social pursuits, expression, and tastes valued by a society or class, as in the arts, manners, dress, etc.

4.1.3 Cultural Model

4.1.4 Global Communication Network



All Channels

4.1.5 A Cross-Cultural Communication Process Model

E-mail Instant Messaging Internet And Extranet Links Videoconference

A Cross-Cultural Communication Process Model


Some Culture Scenario

Japan To help her American Company establish a presence in Japan, Mrs. Torres wants to hire a local interpreter who can advise her on business customs. Ms. Tomari has superb qualifications on paper, but when Mrs. Torres tries to probe about her experience, Ms. Tomari just says, I will do my best. I will try very hard. She never gives details about any of the previous positions she has held. Mrs. Torres begins to wonder if Ms. Tomari's rsum is inflated.

Some Culture Scenario

Stan Williams wants to negotiate a joint venture between his American firm and a Beijing-based company. He asks Tung-Sen Lee if the Chinese people have enough discretionary income to afford his product. Mr. Lee is silent for a time, and then says, Your product is good. People in the West must like it. Stan smiles, pleased that Mr. Lee recognizes the quality of his product, and he leaves a contract for Mr. Lee to sign. Weeks later, Stan still hasnt heard anything. If China is going to be so inefficient, he wonders if his company should 13 try to do business there.

Some Culture Scenario

Gloria Johnson is proud of her participatory management style. Assigned in Bombay on behalf of her U.S.-based company, she is careful not to give orders but to ask for suggestions. But the employees rarely suggest anything. Even a formal suggestion system she established does not work. Worse still, she doesnt sense the respect and camaraderie that she felt at the plant she managed in Texas. Perhaps the people in India just are not ready for a woman boss.

Some Culture Scenario

Alan Caldwell is a U.S. sales representative in Mexico City. He makes appointments with Senr Lopez and is careful to be on time, but his host is frequently late. To save time, Alan tries to get right to business, his host wants to talk about sightseeing and about Alans family. Even worse, the meetings are interrupted constantly with phone calls, long conversations with other people, and even customers children who come into the office. Alans first report to his home office is very negative. He hasnt yet made a sale. Perhaps Mexico just isnt the right place to do business.

4.1.6 Stereotypes
A type of categorization that organizes previous experiences and guides future behavior regarding various groups and nationalities Can create a barrier to communication Can facilitate communication

Example of Stereotypes

Example of Stereotypes
Arab / Muslims


Stereotypes as a Barrier to Communication

Stereotypes can be a barrier to communication:

when global managers rely on these overly simplistic schemata of how people from a particular culture think and behave without making adjustments based on personal experiences

How to Use Stereotypes in a Meaningful Manner to Facilitate Communication

The first best guess about a culture or group before receiving information about the specific individual with whom you are interacting Descriptive rather than evaluative so that behavior of a culture or group can be described in objective terms rather than judged as good or bad Modified, based on further observation and experience with the actual people and situations within the culture


4.2 Potential Barriers to Effective Cross-Cultural Communication





Top Ten Languages Spoken in the World


The ability to speak a language is the most significant feature of being human. Because languages are arbitrary symbolic systems, its not surprising that there is so much linguistic diversity. There isnt even universal agreement about how many languages there are in the world. Estimates ranges from several thousand to 10,000.


Verbal Barriers
American: Jack will blow his top. British: Our chairman might tend to disagree. American: Youre talking bullshit. British: Im not quite with you on that one. American: You gotta be kidding. British: Hm, thats an interesting idea.

Verbal Barriers
Word connotations
American: Yes means yes and No means no Japanese: Yes Hai means.
1. Yes, I hear you, I agree, and I will do. 2. Yes I hear you, I agree, but I will not do. 3. Yes I hear you, but I do not agree. 4. Yes I am listening, but I do not understand.

Brazilian: An open no is considered extremely hostile and rude A polite way to disagree would be Im not sure or It might be difficult French: Ce nest pas possible Its not possible, when in fact it very well could be possible but requires some negotiation between the two speakers

Tone of Differences or Differences in Intonation

(Old English) Eg: Scottish


Greetings Around the World

Women kiss and are kissed; men embrace men
Handshake between men; one kiss for the woman Two kisses in Paris; three in Belgium; four in Brittany Both men and women kiss each other




Japan: China:

Bowing; lower status person bows lower than higher status person Have you eaten rice today? => How are you? Silence until the two people become comfortable with each other

Native American:
West African:

Handshake with a snap of the fingers; handholding while talking/walking


4.2.3 Nonverbal Behavior


1. a motion of the hands, head, or body to emphasize an idea or emotion; 2. something said or done as a formality or as an indication of intention: a political gesture.


Example of Gesture


Example of Gesture


Facial Expression
1. a manifestation of an emotion, feeling, etc., without words; 2. a look on the face that indicates mood or emotion.


Example of Facial Expression


Types of touching includes: patting, slapping, punching, pinching, stroking, shaking, kissing, licking, holding, embracing, linking, kicking, tickling, laying on (of hands), grooming, guiding The meaning of touch can vary from culture to culture. Some cultures are considered
high-touch (e.g., Mediterranean cultures Arabs, Jews, eastern Europeans); whereas, others are considered low-touch (e.g., English, Germans, northern European, and many Asian cultures).



High-Context Communication Cultures Do not require a detailed exchange of information Rely on the knowledge they already have about the individual before the interaction Status of the individual affects communication

EX 3.1 High Context and Low Context Countries

Asian Latin American Middle Eastern

High Context: Meaning Implicit Languages Japanese Arabs Surrounding Latin Americans Information Italians Necessary for Understanding British French North Americans Scandinavians Germans Swiss

Low Context: Meaning Explicit in Language


Low-Context Communication Cultures Prefer explicit, detailed exchange of information when two or more individuals are conducting business Facts, figures, and future projections are commonly used in situations


EX 3.1 High Context and Low Context Countries

High Context: Meaning Implicit Languages Japanese Arabs Surrounding Information Necessary for Understanding Latin Americans Italians British French North Americans Scandinavians Germans Swiss

Low Context: Meaning Explicit in Language

European Scandinavian North American



4.2.5 TIME

Polychronic Time Cultures Prone to multitasking and doing many things at once Subject to interruptions Committed to human relations Change plans often Base punctuality on the relationship with the person being visited

Polychronic Cultures
Saudi Arabia Egypt Mexico Philippines Turkey


Monochronic Time Cultures Tend to be linear and do one thing at a time Treat time commitments consistently Adhere to long-term plans Follow rules of privacy Show respect for private property Emphasize promptness

Monochronic Cultures
Germany Canada Switzerland United States Scandinavia


Monochronic / Polychronic Time Use Continuum

One activity is engaged in during a given time period.
Some activities may be performed simultaneously or intermittently, while others are performed one at a time. Individuals may vary along a continuum in the amount of their time spent in either polychronic or monochronic time use.


Two activities are engaged in simultaneously or intermittently during a given time period.


Public Zone
More Than 12 Feet

Social Zone
4 Feet to 12 Feet

18 inches to 12 Feet

Intimate Zone


4.3 Key CrossCommunication Skill

Listening Skills
Listening Is With The Mind Hearing With The Senses Listening Is Conscious. An Active Process Of Eliciting Information Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions Interpersonal, Oral Exchange


Key Cross-Communication Skill

Feedback Skills
Effective Feedback Skills

Focus on specific behaviours Keep feedback impersonal Keep feedback goal oriented Make feedback well timed Ensure understanding Direct feedback toward behaviour that is controllable by the recipient


4.4 Basic CrossCommunication Skill

___________________________________________________ Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught ___________________________________________________ Listening Speaking Reading Writing First Second Third Fourth First Second Third Fourth Fourth Third Second First


4.5 Improving Cross-Cultural Communication

Global managers striving to become better cross-cultural communicators must accomplish two separate tasks:
1.They must improve their messages the

information they wish to transmit 2.They must seek to improve their own understanding of what people from other cultures are trying to communicate to them


Steps to Become More Effective at Cross-Cultural Communication

1. 2. 3. 4.

Start with your own culture Learn about the host culture Know the host country language Use best practices communications skills
Mutual Trust Empathy Repetition Effective Listening

4.6 Business Culture

Business cultures are like societies studied by traditional anthropologists;
employees in corporations: engage in rituals perpetuate corporate myths and stories adhere to a set of norms, symbols, and behavioral expectations use specialized vocabularies

Business organizations tend to be both differentiated and socially stratified, with specific roles and statuses identified. Business organizations deal with groups such as unions, governments, environmental groups, consumers, etc., and have external relations with other social systems.

END OF SEMINAR SESSION Any questions? We proceed to Case Studies


Case Studies
The Company Siemens is a globally operating electronics and electrical-engineering company with some 434,000 employees and a presence in over 190 countries. It was ranked 22nd on the Fortune Global 500 list in 2006, and 21st in 2005 (Fortune, 2006). About 40 percent of the shares of the Munich-based company are located in Germany and another 40 percent in continental Europe and Great Britain. Most of the employees are located in Germany (38 percent) and in the rest of Europe (26 percent). The corporate language at Siemens had Been stated by the former CEO of the company, Heinrich von Pierer, to be English (Javidan, 2002).

The Dilemma Corporate Language Views on the corporate language seemed to differ to a significant extent depending on the geographical location, the managerial level as well as the native language of the respondents. Not surprisingly, German-speaking Countries prefer using German in communication with headquarters, German was reported as the corporate language. In addition to these, Eastern European and Latin American countries, as well as China, were referred to by many as countries in which German was preferred to English in communication. In spite of the clear importance of German in Siemens internal communication, the majority were of the opinion that its role was diminishing. In some businesses English is very strong, in some less strong, but the direction is more and more toward English. From this perspective, the possibility of such an intentionally emergent approach would seem to be supported by the fact that management unable to locate an exact point in time when the decision to adopt a common corporate language was made in the company.

The Dilemma continue Some even argued that no such decision had ever been made, and therefore the official language still remained German. The first author was not provided with any company documents concerning the top-management decision to introduce a common corporate language. Yet, one respondent in Germany stated: There are two [corporate languages], German of course, and then officially the foreign language is English Thus, the interview data show the diversity of positions and approaches concerning the use and choice of the common corporate language(s).

The Discussion
Argues that a common corporate language may not be as widely shared within the firm as the term suggests, given the multilingual nature of most multinationals, variation in the language proficiency of their employees, and the level of analysis used in previous research. In order to better understand the use of a common language or languages in SIEMEN, it is important to focus on the interplay between languages. As a starting point, aim to answer the following research questions;
What makes the common corporate language common in SIEMEN? To what extent is it shared and used throughout the SIEMEN administration? How SIEMEN managed the corporate language?