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Evolution of Telecommunication

K C Tripathi

0G

1G technologies 2G technologies Circuit and Packet Switching. 3GPP & 3GPP2

Services offered by 3G Deployment Problems 3G in India & its delay

Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G

0G

1G technologies 2G technologies Circuit and Packet Switching. 3GPP & 3GPP2

Services offered by 3G Deployment Problems 3G in India & its delay

Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G

0G

1G technologies 2G technologies Circuit and Packet Switching. 3GPP & 3GPP2

Services offered by 3G Deployment Problems 3G in India & its delay

4G

Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G

ORIGIN of Wireless Communication

1864

1886

James Maxwell

Rudolph Hertz

Predicts existence of radio waves.

Demonstrates radio waves.

1895-1901

Guglielmo Marconi

ORIGIN of Wireless Communication 1864 1886 James Maxwell Rudolph Hertz Predicts existence of radio waves. Demonstrates
ORIGIN of Wireless Communication 1864 1886 James Maxwell Rudolph Hertz Predicts existence of radio waves. Demonstrates

Demonstrates wireless communications over increasing distances

1924

1924 0G

0G

1980s

AMPS

Analog Voice

1G

Typical 2.4 Kbps

NMT

TACS

1G

• Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)

– Deployed in US , Japan : 1983

• Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT)

– Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland : 1981 • Total Access Communication System (TACS)

– British System, similar to AMPS : 1985

1990s

Digital Voice

GSM

2G

9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)

TDMA

CDMA

2G – GSM

• Global system for Mobile

– Based on TDMA ; Europe – 900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz. – Later 850 Mhz and 1900 Mhz in Americas – Quad Band ; World Phones

2G - CDMA

• Code Division Multiple Access

– cdmaOne or IS-95 – All users use same freq band ; 800 Mhz – Major success in Korea, Used by Verizon and Sprint – Easy Migration to 3G

Circuit Switching

Circuit Switching Dedicated end to end connection A private road all for yourself

Dedicated end to end connection A private road all for yourself

Packet Switching

Packet Switching Divided packets can take different paths and times A shared highway

Divided packets can take different paths and times

A shared highway

114 Kbps

GPRS

384 Kbps

EDGE

3GPP

100 Mbps

LTE

1.92 Mbps

WCDMA

14 Mbps

HSPA

114 Kbps

1xRTT

3GPP2

2.4 Mbps

EV-DO

288 Mbps

UMB

(abandoned 2008 Nov & favoring LTE)

0G

1G technologies 2G technologies Circuit and Packet Switching. 3GPP & 3GPP2

Services offered by 3G Deployment Problems 3G in India & its delay

Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G

2001

2.5G

GPRS

Packet Data

2.5G - GPRS

• General Packet Radio Service - An Overlay technology on top of the existing GSM systems.

Data rate = 56 – 114Kbps.

• 4 MCS (Modulation and coding schemes) used.

• Factors affecting downlink/uplink speed:

– TDMA slots – Multi-slot class – Channel Encoding used.

HSCSD

• High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data.

• An enhancement to CSD – Multiple timeslots used.

• Data rates up to 38.4 Kbps (4 times CSD).

– In reality supports 14.4Kbps.

• Expensive than CSD.

• Latency less that GPRS.

2003

Packet Data

2.75G

EDGE

CDMA 1xRTT

EDGE

• EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM)

• Superset of GPRS.

Data rate = 4 times GPRS.

• 9 MCS (Modulation and coding schemes) used – Gaussian min shift keying and 8PSK.

Data rate = 1Mbps

Evolved EDGE

• Encoding technique – 32QAM and 16QAM.

• Requires simple network enhancements with software update.

CDMA 1xRTT

1x

is

an

abbreviation

of

1xRTT

(1x

Radio

Transmission Technology).1x refers to the no. of duplex radio channels.

• Supports

33-35

simultaneous

voice

calls

per

1.25MHz.(cdmaOne = 20 voice calls)

• Encoding technique:

– BPSK for forward and reverse link.

• Data Rate = 153 Kbps/153 Kbps.

• Software and minimum hardware update.

CDMA2000

IMT2000

3G

W-CDMA (UMTS)

UMTS

• UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Also known as W-CDMA.

• W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA and TDD channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz channels.

• Requires new cell towers & frequency allocations.

• Data rate = 1Mbps(theoritical)

• Frequency bands:

– Uplink 1885-2025 MHz (mobile-to-base ) – Downlink 2110-2200 MHz (base-to-mobile).

CDMA2000

• EVDO Rel 0 (Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only Release 0)

• Data rates:

– Forward link - 2.4Mbps. – Reverse link - 153kbps.

• Encoding technique:

– Forward link – 16QAM. – Reverse link - BPSK.

HSDPA

HSUPA

3.5G

EVDO-Rev A

EVDO-Rev B

HSPA

• High Speed Packet Access is a collection of two mobile telephony protocols HSDPA and HSUPA.

• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

– Data rates for Forward link - 14.4Mbps. – Encoding technique – QPSK and 16QAM

• High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) or EUL(Enhanced Uplink)

– Data rates for Reverse link - 5.76Mbps.

• Just a software update for most WCDMA networks.

HSPA+

• Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+)

• Data rates:

– Forward link - 42Mbps. – Reverse link - 22Mbps.

• Encoding technique 64QAM.

EVDO Rev A

• EVDO Rev A (Revision A)

• Also called as EV-DV (Evolution Data/Voice)

• Data rates:

– Forward link - 3.1Mbps. – Reverse link - 1.8Mbps.

• Encoding technique:

– Forward link – 16QAM. – Reverse link - QPSK and 8PSK.

EVDO Rev B

• Combine up to fifteen 1.25MHz carriers (20MHz) in forward and/or reverse link. Carriers not physically combined and not adjacent to each other.

Data rate:

– Forward link = 3.1Mbps*15channels = 47Mbps. – Reverse link = 1.8Mbps*15channels = 27Mbps.

• Encoding technique 64QAM. Uplink data rate increases from 3.1Mbps to 4.9Mbps per channel. Thus, Data rate:

– Forward link = 4.9Mbps*15channels = 74Mbps.

• Only software updation required.

0G

1G technologies 2G technologies Circuit and Packet Switching. 3GPP & 3GPP2

Services offered by 3G Deployment Problems 3G in India & its delay

4G

Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G of 4G

Video Services Location Based Services Instant Messaging Multi Player Gaming

DEPLOYMENT

PROBLEMS

Argentina Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Belarus Belgium Bermuda Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Ecuador

Estonia

Finland

France

Georgia

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Hong Kong

Hungary

Iceland India Indonesia
Iceland
India
Indonesia

Ireland

Israel

Italy

Jamaica

Japan

Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan

Slovenia

Malaysia

South Korea

Mauritius

South Africa

Mexico

Spain

Moldova

Sri Lanka

Netherlands

Sweden

New Zealand

Taiwan

Nicaragua

Tajikistan

Nigeria

Thailand

Norway

Ukraine

Pakistan

U A E

Panama

United Kingdom

Peru

United States

Poland

Uzbekistan

Portugal

Venezuela

Romania

Vietnam

Russia

Venezuela

Singapore

Vietnam

3G

in

INDIA

Out in Market…

Out in Market… Where are we ?
Out in Market… Where are we ?
Out in Market… Where are we ?

Where are we ?

4G

Summary

G

Technology

 

Data Rates

1

Analog

Typical 2.4 Kbps; max 22 Kbps

2

Digital – TDMA, CDMA

9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)

2.5

GPRS – mux packets in voice timeslots

15 - 40 Kbps

3

Improved modulation, using CDMA variants

50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT); 200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS); 500 Kbps – 2.4 Mbps (EVDO)

3.5

More modulation tweaks

2–14 Mbps (HSPA)

4

New modulation (OFDMA);

LTE:

>10 Mbps; eventual

Multi-path (MIMO); All IP

potential >100 Mbps