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INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After the lesson, the participants shall be able to:
1. Explain and illustrate the role and functions of
research in development; 2. Define research and distinguish the different types and methods of research and their application to specific fields (education, health care, engineering, business, governance, etc); 3. Recognize the importance and appreciate the value of research as a tool for development; 4. Describe and demonstrate the steps of the research process.

RESEARCH DEFINED
Research - a scientific investigation intended to discover new knowledge, to test new knowledge or technology, verify existing theories and generate new ones. Research - a tool for growth of science, pure or applied, physical, biological or social. Research - a tool for human development.

Research and Human Development


New
Knowledge

Better Skills, Attitudes, Behavior


Improved Practices & Service Delivery New Tools, Devices, Equipment

Research

Better Quality of Life

New Technology

RESEARCH AND THE ACADEME

Instruction

Extension

Educational Development Research


The 3 major functions of higher education are: RESEARCH, INSTRUCTION AND EXTENSION

Research self-reliance
Research self-reliance depends on a complex array of interlinked factors, the major ones being: 1. Enabling research systems and institutional framework; 2. Research leadership to establish research/development agendas, attract resources, new researchers and research groups, and develop networks; 3. Critical mass of personnel with up-to-date R&D skills in biomedical, social, economic, behavioral and engineering sciences;

Research self-reliance
4. Adequate maintained infrastructures (buildings, equipment, electronic communication, other facilities); 5. Steady flow of resources and actual relevant research activities ; 6. Means and opportunities for participating in international R&D partnerships; 7. Re-creation of the research capacity base through attracting and developing new researchers; 8. Capacity to advocate the translation of research results into policy and practices.

THE ACADEME AS RESEARCH CONSUMERS


Teachers use research data/information as inputs to instruction. Students use research data to understand better a certain phenomenon or existing issues or conditions. Administrators use research in policymaking, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

THE ACADEME AS PRODUCER OF RESEARCH


Students conduct research to fulfill a requirement or to satisfy once intellectual curiosity. Some of these requirements are project studies, special problems, thesis, dissertation.

Faculty members conduct research to search for truth, to satisfy curiosity, to develop professionally, to contribute to development, to respond to a challenge/need, to solve a problem, or to meet a requirement

Some faculty-researchers are commissioned by government or private agencies to conduct studies to explore or explain certain social or economic phenomenon, or to monitor or evaluate a certain intervention/program. Some researchers conduct research or develop new technology, devices, facilities, programs, equipment, & the like to improve existing condition or processes.

Types of Research
DESCRIPTIVE: aims to describe the characteristics of a group of people/objects (profile) or an existing condition (situation analysis).

RELATIONAL/CORRELATIONAL: aims to explain the connection between a problem and selected factors. EXPERIMENTAL/INTERVENTION: aims to determine the effect of a certain intervention or treatment under controlled conditions.

In a descriptive study, the researcher observes, counts, describes & classifies.


Examples: a. A study of specific groups of persons (school drop-outs, slow learners, single parents, children of single parents, high risk individuals [diabetics, sex workers, construction workers, etc] b. A study of attitudes and behavior of specific groups (female executives, male house managers, micro entrepreneurs, local officials, etc

Epidemiology of certain diseases Marketing strategies of certain firms Feasibility study of specific projects Study of characteristics or toxicity of certain plants Environmental Impact assessment (EIA)

Relational or correlational study attempts to identify the existence, nature, degree or direction of relationship between a problem and identified factors.

Examples:
Selected factors and persons stress level, Grade in professional courses and board exam results Marketing strategies and sales performance Exposure to mass media and smoking Color of leaves and level of toxicity Food intake exercise and FBS level

In an experimental/Intervention research, the researcher studies the effect of something (treatment/intervention)

Examples: Testing a new approach to improve compliance to rules or prescriptions Comparative effect of two alternative topical medicines in treatment of simple wound Testing the efficacy of a certain substance (in controlling or treating a particular health problem)

Identification and Definition of a Research Problem

Statement of Research Problem/Objectives

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Formulation

Operational Definition of variables

Hypothesis Formulation

Choosing Appropriate Research Design Identification of Target Population and Sampling Data Collection
Preparation of Research Instrument Reliability Testing and Validation Q Administration, Interview Testing & Observation

Quality Control

Data Processing (Editing, Coding, Encoding, Creation of Data Files Tabulation) Data Analysis and Interpretation (Statistical Analysis, Interpretation, Generalization) Report Preparation and Information Dissemination

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