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CreaLlng a knowledge culLure

uruhut[|t Sur[|tr|nc|pa| Consu|tant kIMS

management Internat|ona|e
ouL Lhe auLhor
W Mcklnsey Company ls a gloal managemenL consulLlng flrm
1hey are a LrusLed advlsor Lo Lhe world's leadlng uslnesses
governmenLs and lnsLlLuLlons
W 1hey help leaders make dlsLlncLlve lasLlng and susLanLlal
lmprovemenLs Lo Lhe performance of Lhelr organlzaLlons
W 1hey Lackle Lhelr mosL dlfflculL lssues and serlous challenges
W 1hey provlde our people an ouLsLandlng place Lo work wlLh
opporLunlLles for growLh LhaL Lhey can flnd nowhere else
1 lnLroducLlon Lo knowledge managemenL
2 Mcklnsey's survey
3 CreaLlng a deslre for knowledge
4 8rlnglng knowledge Lo 8ear
3 knowledge culLure and lLs relevance Lo organlzaLlon
6 knowledge culLure and lLs relevance Lo organlzaLlon culLure
7 knowledge culLure and lLs relevance Lo Puman resource
8 8lllography
1 lnLroducLlon Lo knowledge managemenL
1here are several dlfferenL and someLlmes qulLe confuslng
sLaLemenLs LhaL clalm Lo e a deflnlLlon of knowledge
ManagemenL and Lhere are dlfferenL perspecLlves on whaL
knowledge ManagemenL ls lor example
W kM ls aouL sysLems and Lechnologles
W kM ls aouL people and learnlng organlzaLlons
W kM ls aouL processes meLhods and Lechnlques
W kM ls aouL managlng knowledge asseLs
W kM ls a hollsLlc lnlLlaLlve across Lhe enLlre organlzaLlon
W kM ls noL a dlsclpllne as such and should e an lnLegral parL
of every knowledge workers dally responsllllLles
2 Mcklnsey's survey
8ecause knowledge managemenL ls an lncreaslng essenLlal componenL of lnnovaLlon and value
creaLlon Mcklnsey made a survey of 40 companles ln Lurope !apan and uS 1hey focused lnLo
Lwo Lasks
W roducL developmenL
W Crder generaLlon and fulflllmenL
CaLegorlzlng Lhe sample companles (19931998) uslng process performance and flnanclal
W 13 successful companles
W 10 moderaLely successful companles (wlll e lefL ouL Lo geL slgnlflcanL dlfferenLlaLlon)
W 13 less successful companles
Successfu| compan|es LessSuccessfu| compan|es
CuL LhroughpuL Llme 11 16
uevelopmenL Llme 46 07
Comparlng Lhe knowledge managemenL pracLlces ln Lhose companles Lhey found
Successful companles ulld a corporaLe envlronmenL LhaL fosLers a deslre for
knowledge among Lhelr employees and LhaL ensures lLs conLlnual appllcaLlon dlsLrluLlon and
3 CreaLlng a deslre for knowledge
W pproaches
Less Successful Companles ush knowledge pproach (Lo where lL ls needed)
Successful Companles knowledge ull pproach (rewardlng employee Lo
seek share and creaLe knowledge)
W 8arrlers
Lmployees reslsL uslng knowledge generaLed y oLhers
eople sLlll elleve LhaL Lhe hoardlng of knowledge ls power 1hls may help
lndlvlduals uL hurLs companles
3 CreaLlng a deslre for knowledge
now to ovetcome bottlets?
W LsLallsh clear goals LhaL promoLe knowledge pull y forclng employees Lo reach
eyond Lhemselves
W SeL amlLlous goals for roducL developmenL and process lnnovaLlon
W CranLlng flnanclal and oLher lncenLlves Lo reward employees who pull knowledge
from lnLernal and exLernal sources and conLrluLe Lhelr own knowledge Lo Lhe
corporaLe ase
W 1ylng lncenLlves Lo goals LhaL employees can lnfluence uL noL achleve on Lhelr
own forces Lhem Lo seek and Lo offer knowledge more road
W lncenLlves can lnclude coveLed offlce space opporLunlLy Lo Lravel and recelve
more challenglng asslgnmenL
W lncludlng Lhe knowledge managemenL among Lhe corporaLe oecLlves
W erform research compeLlLlons wlLh hlgh presLlge hlghvalue prlzes
W keep knowledge managemenL ln mlnd when crafLlng Lhe corporaLe sLraLegles
3 CreaLlng a deslre for knowledge
ootce2000 sotvey of 40 compooles lo otope Iopoo ooJ tbe u Mcklosey ooolysls
ercenL of arLlclpanLs uslng speclflc Lechnlques
4 8rlnglng knowledge Lo 8ear
W es|des creat|ng an env|ronment that encourage know|edge pu|| successfu|
compan|es exce| |n
A App|y|ng know|edge
D|str|but|ng know|edge
C Creat|ng know|edge
W 1hese tasks are |ntergraded and can't eas||y be separated so for examp|e a
techn|que that he|ps d|str|bute know|edge cou|d a|so fac|||tate |ts app||cat|on |n
spec|f|c s|tuat|ons
W nowever d|v|d|ng the range of know|edgemanagement pract|ces among
these three tasks |s part|y a matter of conven|ence and part|y an attempt to
d|st|ngu|sh techn|ques by the speed w|th wh|ch they can |mprove corporate
4 8rlnglng knowledge Lo 8ear
1he appllcaLlon of knowledge LhaL ls already ln hand ls Lhe fasLesL and mosL
dlrecL way of uslng knowledge Lo lnfluence a company's oLLom llne
furLher lf companles fall Lo apply knowledge lLs successful dlsLrluLlon and
culLlvaLlon wlll have llLLle lmpacL
8uL Lhe lssue ls LhaL whlle lnformaLlon ls generally a facL whereas knowledge ls
suecLlve and would e welghL y lndlvlduals ased on dlfferenL seL of
experlences and preudlces
CreaLe cross funcLlon Leams
LsLallsh faceLoface meeLlngs Lo creaLe common undersLandlng
dapL ldeas lnLo dlfferenL processes where needed
4 8rlnglng knowledge Lo 8ear
8 ulsLrluLlon
1echnlques LhaL eneflL appllcaLlon ofLen eneflL dlsLrluLlon slnce Lhe Lwo are
closely llnked uL appllcaLlon focuses on uslng knowledge for lmmedlaLe effecL
dlsLrluLlon on movlng knowledge Lo where lL can esL e applled and so heavlly relles
on good lnfrasLrucLure
Powever Lhe challenge goes eyond ulldlng lnformaLlon neLworks as much of Lhe
mosL valuale knowledge ls emedded ln Lhe mlnds of Lhe employees and LaclL
knowledge ls very hard Lo manage
Lncourage exchange and sharlng of LaclL knowledge
Lncourage personal neLworklng cross funcLlon Leams and o roLaLlons
LsLallsh daLa neLworks accesslle across funcLlons
4 8rlnglng knowledge Lo 8ear
C CreaLlon
knowledge creaLlon ls Lhe key source of lnnovaLlon ln any companyCeorg von krogh
(1998) ?eL of all Lhe Lasks lnvolved ln managlng knowledge lLs creaLlon ls Lhe mosL
sllppery ecause creaLlvlLy ls culLlvaLed raLher Lhan ordalned
Maklng Lhe os of employees more lnLeresLlng Lo encourage creaLlvlLy
llow employees Lo parLlclpaLe ln proecLs noL dlrecLly llnked Lo Lhelr usual
3 knowledge culLure and lLs relevanL Lo organlzaLlon
W Managers need a concepLual framework of Lhe llnks eLween
culLure and knowledge Lo deslgn Lhe lnLervenLlons needed Lo creaLe
ehavlors LhaL wlll supporL Lhelr knowledge managemenL
W oecLlves 1he purpose of Lhls arLlcle has een Lo suggesL four
ways ln whlch organlzaLlonal culLure lnfluences ehavlors cenLral Lo
knowledge creaLlon sharlng and use
W CulLure medlaLes Lhe relaLlonshlps eLween lndlvldual and
organlzaLlonlevel knowledge
W CulLure creaLes Lhe conLexL for soclal lnLeracLlon LhaL ulLlmaLely
deLermlnes Lhe value an organlzaLlon derlves from knowledge
6 knowledge culLure and lLs relevance Lo
organlzaLlon culLure
W knowledge shapes Lhe culLural process
W knowledge culLure ls Lhe crlLlcal sLep ln developlng oLh a
sLraLegy and speclflc lnLervenLlons Lo allgn Lhe flrm's culLure ln
supporL of more effecLlve knowledge use
7 knowledge culLure and lLs relevance Lo
Puman resource
W 1he areas of P8M and P8u ln oLh pullc and prlvaLe secLor organlzaLlons where
we have seen Lhe mosL lmpacL from approaches ased on knowledge
managemenL are
8eLenLlon and Successlon lannlng
ay and 8eward
1ralnlng and uevelopmenL
W 1he common Lhemes affecLlng Lhese areas and Lhe focus for Lhls dlscusslon paper
are Lhe P8M lmpacLs of Lhe knowledge economy arlslng from changes Lo
'ower relaLlonshlps eLween organlzaLlons and lndlvlduals
ManagemenL 8oles
values and eLhlcs
Managlng Change and Managlng CrganlzaLlonal CulLure
W Colllson Chrls and Ceoff arcell eotoloq 1o lly ltoctlcol lessoos ftom ooe of tbe wotlJs eoJloq
koowleJqe compooles ! Wlley / CapsLone 2003
W C uesouza kevln ed -ew ltootlets of koowleJqe algrave Macmlllan 2003
W 1ruch Ldward ed evetoqloq cotpotote koowleJqe Cower 2004
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ltoctlces 2
eJ Sprlnger verlag 2003
W 8ao and Madanmohan eoJloq wltb koowleJqe koowleJqe Moooqemeot ltoctlces lo Clobol
1aLa McCraw Plll 2003
W uespres Charles and uanlele Chauval eds koowleJqe notlzoos 1be lteseot ooJ tbe ltomlse of
koowleJqe Moooqemeot 8uLLerworLhPelneman 2000
W -onaka lkulro and PlroLaka 1akeuchl 1be koowleJqecteotloq compooy Cxford unlverslLy ress
W 8elllnger Cene knowledge ManagemenL 1997
W lavl Maryam and uoroLhy L Leldner knowledge managemenL sysLems lssues challenges and
eneflLs CommunlcaLlons of Lhe lS 1999
W lerLhal Les 8emarks Lo Lhe llnanclal LxecuLlves lnsLlLuLe uallas1x CcL 23 1993
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perennlal Llrary 1994
W CulLure and Change ManagemenL lnLernaLlonal !ournal of knowledge volume 8lssue 8
W Parman Chrls and Sue 8relade Managlng Puman 8esources ln Lhe knowledge Lconomy
unlLed -aLlons 7Lh Cloal lorum on 8elnvenLlng CovernmenL 2629 !une 2007
W Parman and 8relade knowledge ManagemenL and 1he 8ole of P8 llnanclal 1lmes renLlce
Pall 2000