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# Modeling AC/DC/AC converter In IGBT based electric locomotive

Submitted by :
Nidhi Haryani

Agenda

## 2 Satya K Jain 7/24/2010

Introduction
Electric Locomotives were earlier driven by DC motors and DC transmission lines, as DC commutators have problems both in starting and at low velocities, the use of 3-phase induction motor became popular.
As high voltage DC transmission is not possible so AC transmission came into picture. For variable AC voltage inverters are used which require a constant DC supply which is obtained by employing a front end rectifier.

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Specifications
Traction Power Supply
Permissible Limits Traction Motors

:
: :

Nominal 25KV,50Hz
19.9 - 27.5KV, 48.5-51.5Hz 6 IM (1500hp,3167V, 50Hz, 1725 rpm Rr = 0.816,Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435,Ls = 4mH )

Transformer

Line Converter

Line Inverter

## 4 IGBT SPWM Inverter,

2800V Dc fs = 500Hz

Circuit Diagram

Topologies

## Voltage Source Inverter

Output Voltage - Sinusoidal/Square wave with variable magnitude and frequency.
Input Voltage - DC Voltage

## Reversible Power Flow possible

Switching Devices - IGBT Used in AC motor drive with a switch mode rectifier

## Pulse Width Modulated Switching Scheme

A sinusoidal waveform known as modulating waveform of frequency equal to that of the desired output voltage frequency is compared with a triangular waveform of frequency fs and amplitude Vtri. Vd Vm : Input Voltage : Amplitude of modulating waveform

fm
fs Vtri ma

## : Frequency of modulating waveform

: Switching frequency : Amplitude of triangular/carrier waveform : Amplitude modulation ratio
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ma = Vm/Vtri

mf = fs/fm
mf : Frequency modulation ratio VAof : Amplitude of fundamental component of output voltage

mf should be an odd number to eliminate all the even harmonics in output voltage

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Vm > Vtri TA+ is on, Vao = 0.5Vd Vm < Vtri TA- is on, Vao = -0.5Vd VAof = ma*Vd/2

Vabf = ma*Vd

PWM

PWM

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The gate signals are obtained by comparing 3 sinusoidal waveforms (in case
of sinusoidal PWM) displaced by 120 degree with the triangular wave.

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PWM Rectifier

Vdc = Vs(rms)*sqrt(2)/ma

## For unity power factor

Ig = P/Vac(rms) Ig = 1246.79A (p-p)

Vcos(delta) = E

Tan(delta) = Ig*w*L/E
Vsin(delta) = Ig*w*L ma = V/Vdc Ihn = Vhn/(n*w*L)

L for Power Flow

## L for Harmonic Limit

It can be interpreted from the above calculations and simulation results that no inductance value satisfies the power flow equation as well as the harmonic flow equation.
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## Induction Motor Torque Speed Characteristics

3-phase IM, 3167V, 50 Hz,1725 rpm Rr = 0.816 Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435 Ls = 4mH ) Load : Fan Load, Kf = 1e-2 Tm = Kf*wm*wm

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When mechanical torque applied to the motor is changed skips from one graph to another which implies changing of supply frequency, so the supply frequency has to be modified accordingly.
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## Inverter V/f Control

ma/f is constant
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## The reference speed is increased from 40% to 100% at 1s.

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Rectifier Control

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Current Control
Hysteresis Control
The ac current is compared to a reference current and it is restricted to +/- 10% of the reference current at any point of time.

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Here I-Iref 2A as Iref = 20sin(wt) Iac > Iref + 10%* Iref Iac < Iref - 10%* Iref TA- and TB+ are switched on to decrease the current TA+ and TB- are switched on to increase the current
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Voltage Control

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Simulation Results

## Steady State Voltage = 2701V 100Hz Component = 2.47%

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Steady State Current = 1149A p-p THD = 2.58% Power = 1397hp, upf
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Calculation of Kp and Ki

## The reference speed is changed from 80%-100% at 3.5s.

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## Steady State Voltage = 2794 V 100 Hz component = 0.17%

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Steady State error = 0.21% Steady State Current = 1196.46A , THD = 4.53% Power = 1404 hp, upf
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Conclusion
Through our study and the simulation results obtained, it can be concluded that drive needs two separate controlling systems-

- controlling the speed of the motor and the other for maintaining constant DC link voltage.
- controlling the AC current. The rectifier controller consists of two parts: hysteresis current controller tracking voltage controller

## The inverter controller is based on maintaining a constant V/f ratio.

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THANK YOU