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Modeling AC/DC/AC converter In IGBT based electric locomotive

Under the Guidance of Mr. Govardhan Ganireddy

Submitted by :
Nidhi Haryani

Agenda
Introduction Topologies Rectifier Design Inverter V/f Control Rectifier Control

Drive Simulation Results

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Introduction
Electric Locomotives were earlier driven by DC motors and DC transmission lines, as DC commutators have problems both in starting and at low velocities, the use of 3-phase induction motor became popular.
As high voltage DC transmission is not possible so AC transmission came into picture. For variable AC voltage inverters are used which require a constant DC supply which is obtained by employing a front end rectifier.

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Specifications
Traction Power Supply
Permissible Limits Traction Motors

:
: :

Nominal 25KV,50Hz
19.9 - 27.5KV, 48.5-51.5Hz 6 IM (1500hp,3167V, 50Hz, 1725 rpm Rr = 0.816,Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435,Ls = 4mH )

Transformer

Primary- 25KV, 6531KVA Secondary4x1269V,4x1449KVA

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Line Converter

4 IGBT PWM Rectifier, 1269V, 50Hz Dc volt- 2800V

Line Inverter

4 IGBT SPWM Inverter,


2800V Dc fs = 500Hz

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Circuit Diagram

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Topologies

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Switch Mode Inverter

One Leg Switch Mode Inverter

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Voltage Source Inverter


Output Voltage - Sinusoidal/Square wave with variable magnitude and frequency.
Input Voltage - DC Voltage

Reversible Power Flow possible


Switching Devices - IGBT Used in AC motor drive with a switch mode rectifier

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Pulse Width Modulated Switching Scheme


A sinusoidal waveform known as modulating waveform of frequency equal to that of the desired output voltage frequency is compared with a triangular waveform of frequency fs and amplitude Vtri. Vd Vm : Input Voltage : Amplitude of modulating waveform

fm
fs Vtri ma

: Frequency of modulating waveform


: Switching frequency : Amplitude of triangular/carrier waveform : Amplitude modulation ratio
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ma = Vm/Vtri

mf = fs/fm
mf : Frequency modulation ratio VAof : Amplitude of fundamental component of output voltage

mf should be an odd number to eliminate all the even harmonics in output voltage

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Vm > Vtri TA+ is on, Vao = 0.5Vd Vm < Vtri TA- is on, Vao = -0.5Vd VAof = ma*Vd/2

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Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter

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PWM with Bipolar Voltage Switching

Vabf = ma*Vd

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Three Phase Inverters

PWM

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PWM

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The gate signals are obtained by comparing 3 sinusoidal waveforms (in case
of sinusoidal PWM) displaced by 120 degree with the triangular wave.

Vanf = ma*Vd Vab (L-L,rms) = 1.224*ma*Vd

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PWM Rectifier

Vdc = Vs(rms)*sqrt(2)/ma

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Rectifier Inductance Design

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R = 0.01 Vac= 1795V p-p,50 Hz P = 1500 Hp

For unity power factor


Ig = P/Vac(rms) Ig = 1246.79A (p-p)

Vcos(delta) = E

Tan(delta) = Ig*w*L/E
Vsin(delta) = Ig*w*L ma = V/Vdc Ihn = Vhn/(n*w*L)

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Calculation for ma=0.6822


L for Power Flow

L for Harmonic Current Limit

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L for Power Flow

L for Harmonic Limit

It can be interpreted from the above calculations and simulation results that no inductance value satisfies the power flow equation as well as the harmonic flow equation.
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Induction Motor Torque Speed Characteristics


3-phase IM, 3167V, 50 Hz,1725 rpm Rr = 0.816 Lr = 2mH Rs = 0.435 Ls = 4mH ) Load : Fan Load, Kf = 1e-2 Tm = Kf*wm*wm

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When mechanical torque applied to the motor is changed skips from one graph to another which implies changing of supply frequency, so the supply frequency has to be modified accordingly.
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Steady State Speed = 157 rad/s


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Inverter V/f Control

ma/f is constant
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The reference speed is increased from 40% to 100% at 1s.


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Rectifier Control

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Current Control
Hysteresis Control
The ac current is compared to a reference current and it is restricted to +/- 10% of the reference current at any point of time.

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Here I-Iref 2A as Iref = 20sin(wt) Iac > Iref + 10%* Iref Iac < Iref - 10%* Iref TA- and TB+ are switched on to decrease the current TA+ and TB- are switched on to increase the current
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Voltage Control

Tracking Control System.

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Simulation Results

Steady State Voltage = 2701V 100Hz Component = 2.47%


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Steady State Current = 1149A p-p THD = 2.58% Power = 1397hp, upf
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Steady State Error = 3.5%

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Calculation of Kp and Ki

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Ignoring Kp and the filter transfer function

L = 1.67mH Settling time = 0.1s Maximum Overshoot = 5%

R = 2.59 e-4 Ki = 0.12 Kp = 1

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Drive Simulation Results

The reference speed is changed from 80%-100% at 3.5s.


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Steady State Voltage = 2794 V 100 Hz component = 0.17%


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Steady State error = 0.21% Steady State Current = 1196.46A , THD = 4.53% Power = 1404 hp, upf
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Conclusion
Through our study and the simulation results obtained, it can be concluded that drive needs two separate controlling systems-

- controlling the speed of the motor and the other for maintaining constant DC link voltage.
- controlling the AC current. The rectifier controller consists of two parts: hysteresis current controller tracking voltage controller

The inverter controller is based on maintaining a constant V/f ratio.


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THANK YOU

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