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EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

EMPLOYEE
The

strength of an organization

The

only expandable resource in the organization are the employees.

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
Motivated teams lead to the success of organization.

Top Notch Self Actualized (10%)

Fence sitters (80%)

Difficult to improve (10%) Behaviour of Employees

MOTIVATION THEORY OF INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES

Avoid work

No ambition

No initiative Needs security

Do not take responsibility

To make them work, the management has to do the following:


Reward Coerce Intimidate Punish

Want to learn Work is a natural activity Have self discipline


Develop themselves

Self-actualization needs
Esteem needs Love needs Safety needs Physiological needs

Human Motivational Needs

Hygiene Theory
The company Its policies and its administration The kind of supervision which people receive while on the job Working conditions

Interpersonal relations Salary Status


Security

Motivation
Achievement Recognition for Achievement Interest in the task

Responsibility for enlarged task


Growth and advancement to higher level tasks

MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES
All the employees do not fall into one category all the time. It is possible to motivate every employee to work for the organizational goals. However, the time taken to motivate each person depends on his current level of motivation. It is important to realize that each person develops certain attitudes depending on his/her background.

It is very important to have a systematic approach to build and develop individuals. The poor performers can be motivated to perform better if the right environment is created. If the employees are treated fairly, their well being taken care off and the goals and objectives of the organization clearly defined, then the poor performers may also turn out to be good. Therefore, the greatest motivational technique for employees is the proper management of the organization.

TEAMWORK
Manager,
He

supervisor, team leader, head, team coordinator


is responsible for the output of his team while each member of the team is responsible for the work assigned to him.
It

is quite logical that team members have to work together, in the interest of the organization in fulfilling the basic expectations of the employers.

TEAMWORK IS NOT A NATURAL HUMAN FUNCTION At time, one may find that the team members are incompatible and it is difficult for them to work together. Therefore, every effort should be made to put together compatible persons as a team.

MANAGEMENTS ROLE IN ENABLING TEAMWORK

Responsibility Authority Wherewithal for accomplishing the task Criteria of measurement of the work output

WIN WIN SITUATION


Benefits in a win win situation
Achieve

dramatic results, which individuals

cant Make best use of skills of each member of the team Make right decisions Get more employment and job satisfaction

Problems of win lose situation:


Wastes

time Creates conflict Stops people listening Spoils happiness and health of team members

CAN THE JAPANESE SUCCESS BE REPEATED?


Experts believe that teamwork is possible in Japan, as there is no diversity among employees. This may be one of the reasons for the success of the Japanese teams, but the major deterrent for the teamwork elsewhere is the organizational culture, for which only the top management can be blamed. The top management should always encourage teamwork and discourage individualism in organizations.

DO REWARDS DISRUPT TEAMWORK?


It

is believed by some that rewards and awards break teamwork.


On

the contrary, rewards encourage people to practice teamwork.


Awards

should be given to teams rather than individuals whenever possible. The whole team should be appreciated and rewarded.
The

top management should make it clear that they want the entire team to contribute although they know who are the star performers.

COMMUNICATION IS A THREE-WAY PROCESS


To

one, employee is working for --supervisors/managers.


To

the persons working for him --subordinates/junior employees


To

the persons one works with, the peers, counterparts, customers and suppliers (both internal and external)

NECESSITY FOR COMMUNICATING UPWARDS


Upward communication communicating with seniors. means

It is the duty of the junior employee to inform the senior at periodic intervals about the progress of the special task in hand. When the employee comes across an obstacle and is not able to cross it in spite of his best efforts, even with the help of peers, he should inform the senior at the earliest possible opportunity

COMMUNICATION WITH JUNIORS


Every employee should communicate with juniors. The junior employee will not have the same education, experience or expertise as that of the senior. Therefore, the senior has to communicate with the junior patiently and in detail. Communication should emphasize teamwork, quality in all activities, total quality management and latest development in the field of work. The senior should coach the employee to improve the skills day to day.

COMMUNICATION WITH PEERS


Communicating with peers is equally important. Adequate communications is essential between customers and suppliers

MANAGEMENT SHOULD DEVICE WAYS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS


Communication is a never-ending process. The management should be a catalyst for effective communication across the organization.

TRAINING AND MENTORING


Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Mentoring refers to a personal developmental in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps a less experienced or less knowledgeable person.

NECESSITY FOR ORIENTATION AND TRAINING


-employee needs to be given orientation training to carry out his tasks correctly, on the first appointment, before they are deployed to actual work. The orientation training should help the employees to understand the following, in particular:

1. Objectives of the organization 2. Requirements and expectations from his team with reference to the organizations objectives 3. His role 4. His responsibilities 5. His authority 6. The know-how and know-why of the jobs to be undertaken on day-to-day basis 7. Familiarity and skill in operating the tools or machinery connected with the job in hand.

EXPERIENCED RECRUITS NEED MORE ORIENTATION

A fresh employee can be easily moulded as per the organizations goals and objectives. But, an experienced person will definitely bring with him different ideas and work culture from the organizations where he served earlier.

TRAINING IS NOT A ONE-TIME ACTIVITY


Almost all the Quality Gurus, like Philip Crosby, Edwards Deming, and Harrington have highlighted that training is not a one-time activity. In the service sector, obsolescence settles in fast. Therefore, there is a continual change in the business. Before the advent of ISO 9000, training of employees was not considered to be an essential part of the business, even the training activity was never taken seriously. Many employees did not undergo even one training program throughout their services spanning decades.

There is a reluctance on the part of management to send employees for training, due to some of the following reasons:
1. Excessive workload in the organization, which does not permit sending them for training 2.Non-availability courses. of appropriate training

3. Fear of migration of employees after training.

TRAINING IS A FORMAL ACTIVITY


Training should be a formal activity in every organization.

HRD manager should evaluate training needs of the employees. Then, HRD should identify the training providers.
Each training program should evaluated for its effectiveness. be

MENTORING
The employees have to be continuously coached on the job to understand the organizations policies, objectives and goals. Training is only the beginning and only personal coaching or mentoring can sustain the momentum of the employees in working towards the goal.

PDCA FOR TRAINING


Plan for Training Every employee needs training. Provide Training Employees should be deputed for training as planned. Measure Training Effectiveness After the employee undergoes training, the effectiveness of training should be assessed formally. Improve Training Effectiveness Both preventive and corrective actions should be taken for improving the effectiveness of the training programs.

RECOGNITION AND REWARDS


Recognition of Achievement is Important

It is important to recognize achievement of employees, customers and suppliers. Meeting customer requirements is not enough for recognition. Exceeding customer requirements or satisfying customers, whether internal or external, can be considered to be an achievement. Such achievements, if they are recognized and appreciated, should enable the achievers to perform with more interest, enthusiasm and by putting in more efforts.
Recognition has to aim at transforming each employee as a performer and an achiever, as this is an important step towards achieving the goals and objectives of the organization.

SELECT A FEW BEST PERFORMER


The selection of the awardees should be given due consideration. So that few who have performed a topnotch job are awarded. Awards should cut cross the entire organization and not be restricted to any particular discipline, or any particular department alone.

The attributes for selection of best performing employee in ETDC. Commitment Creativity Flexibility Adaptability Determination Responsibility

REWARD TEAMS, RATHER THAN INDIVIDUALS


There is no harm in awarding an individual for his meritorious service. But it may cause hurdles in practicing teamwork in some cases. Hence, the organization should as far as possible, reward the teams. The organization should give emphasis on recognizing the teams as against the individuals, so that there is a good harmony in the organization.

TYPE OF AWARDS
The organization should select the award appropriately. It could be appreciation in an annual meeting, certificates, mementos, and cash awards. No matter what type of award, the employees will definitely be motivated. However, the organization should be consistent in giving the awards.

ENABLE HAPPINESS ALL AROUND


The recognition and award program should help the organization to enable happiness amongst all the employees. It should not lead to bitterness amongst employees and should not demotivate them.

It has been proved beyond doubt that recognition of the worthiest definitely leads not only to higher productivity and quality of the individual or team awarded, but also the entire organization. The management has to be careful, transparent and bold to implement recognition and awards scheme.

FEEDBACK AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Feedbacks are Essential for Both employees and Management


It is more humane to be curious to know about the result of an action. Actions are taken not only by management, but also by junior employees in organizations.

MANAGEMENT SHOULD SEEK FEEDBACK


The management should therefore adopt suitable strategies to get the right feedback from the employees as well as customers. The MBWA is one of the effective means of getting direct feedback on the actions taken

FEEDBACK TO THE EMPLOYEES


The feedback to an employee who has done well will definitely motivate them to do still better. Similarly, the feedback to an employee who is not doing well will give him a chance to analyze and correct himself quickly.

APPROPRIATE FEEDBACK

Should never be exaggerated or under played Must use a understandable language It must be clearly stated First appreciate the good action Remove technical jargons

TIMELY FEEDBACK

Should never be accumulated forever Should be given at the appropriate time


CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK

Should be given continuously

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal is to be used for the development of employees. The supervisor should also be trained on evaluating the performance in an objective manner. The performance of each employee should be reviewed on a quarterly basis and the reports submitted to the management

Such reports to be used by the management, for various purposes as: Promotion Granting of Additional increments Training the employees Reallocation of duties

What is Empowerment?
Empowerment is synonymous with ownership. It is a management practice of sharing information, rewards, and power with employees so that they can take initiative and make decisions to solve problems and improve service and performance.

According to Xerox Corporate Management Institute:

Empowerment is an organization state, where people are aligned with business direction and understand their performance boundaries, thus enabling them to take responsibility and ownership while seeking improvements, identifying the best course of action and initiating steps to satisfy customer requirements.

Empowerment is not without bounds


- Empowerment of employees is not without limitations. -It should be structured and planned in order to achieve the goals of the organization in the TQM way.

Empowerment is not without bounds

Empowerment of employees is not without limitations. - It should be structured and planned in order to achieve the goals of the organization in the TQM way.

Empower teams, not individuals


- A team of employees will be empowered not the individuals. - The teams should function in a democratic manner to achieve success.

TRAINING NEEDED BEFORE EMPOWERMENT


Before empowering, management has to train the employees, ask them to carry on and check whether they are going in the right decision and if so, empower them. The evaluation of every employee of the team is essential before empowering. The employee should be encouraged to participate willingly in the improvement process.

Steps Involved in Empowering


- Agree on what they will produce or carry out. - Decide how to organize the team. - Decide on how the responsibility within the team. - Decide on flow of work. - Audit the process. - Decide on improvement and restart.

The top management should also take the following actions to practice empowerment.
1. Accept that teamwork is more beneficial than hierarchical management. 2. Invest time and money on the team building and training before empowerment. 3. Formulate a clear-cut, unambiguous vision and mission statement and the system for quality. 4. Be prepared to spend more time at the initial stages and later on to listen to the problems of the team members.

5. Prepare to wait patiently for the success of the empowered teams. 6. Prepare to equip the teams with facts and trust them. 7. Provide support and tools wherever required for problem solving. 8. Reward worthy teams. 9. Provided communication infrastructure and Information Technology infrastructure for the teams to carry on the task without difficulty.

Responsibilities of the Team Member.


- The team members should realize that the management may withdraw the delegated authority, if the teams do not show results. - The most important is the faith of each team member in teamwork and empowerment.

Empowerment and Flat Organization


Empowerment and ownership should provide a viable solution for establishing flat organization. In flat organizations, more than 20 persons may report to a person. This will impossible to visualize, but for the empowerment of self-managed team it is possible.

Barriers to Success
1. Difficulty of Supervisor and Team Members in New Roles 2. Supervisor Resistance 3. Misalignment

Difficulty of Supervisor and Team Members in New Roles

Empowerment calls for a totally different approach. Generally, the former supervisors are designated as team coordinator in the empowered team. Therefore he has to change his approach to get the work done. He has to treat the employees as colleagues rather than subordinates.

Supervisor Resistance
It may be easier to convince the team members or junior employees about the new approach. And also supervisor wont come out openly with their problems of the new setup.

Misalignment
Such misalignment of team members will not help in achieving teamwork. If empowered teams cannot practice teamwork, it will affect the productivity and quality of the organization.