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Sytem Pencernaan (Digestive System)

OLEH : KELOMPOK 6 Eksa Bintari Miftahul Huda Nurhayati Rika Pebriani

ANATOMI

Diagram sistem pencernaan 1.Kelenjar ludah 2.Parotis 3.Submandibularis (bawah rahang) 4.Sublingualis (bawah lidah) 5.Rongga mulut 6.Faring 7.Lidah 8.Esofagus 9.Pankreas 10.Lambung 11.Saluran pankreas 12.Hati 13.Kantung empedu 14.duodenum 15.Saluran empedu 16.Kolon 17.Kolon transversum 18.Kolon ascenden 19.Kolon descenden 20.Ileum 21.Sekum 22.Appendiks 23.Rektum 24.Anus

Organ-organ sistem pencernaan berdasarkan diagram gambar diatas adalah :


Rongga mulut (5) : chewing and swallowing foods to be easier form to digest Pharinx (6) : The digested food then it will enter into the throat through pharinx Throat (8) : The entering food from throat to stomach is caused by peristaltic movement. Stomach (10) : In stomach food stired and formed porridge called kim. Small intestine (20) : absorption of, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Large intestine (16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23) : The food that is not absorbed by small intestine will through this. Anus (24) : Is a hole that is final end of digestive tract.

Abdomens accesories
- Pancretic

Pancreatic Among other functions, the pancreas is the main factory for the digestive enzymes are released into the duodenum, the first segment of small intestine. These enzymes break down proteins, fats and carbs.

- Liver

Liver Liver has various functions, but two of its main functions in the digestive system is made and issued an important ingredient called bile and processing of blood that comes from the small intestine containing the nutrients just absorbed. This purifies the heart blood of many impurity-impurity before walking into the entire body.

- Gall bladder

Gall bladder Gallbladder is a storage bag for a more bile. Made in the liver bile flow into the small intestine via bile channels. If the intestine does not need it, bile flows into the gallbladder where he waited for a signal from the gut that there was food. Bile serves two main purposes. First, it helps to absorb fats in the diet and secondly, it carries waste from the liver that can not pass through the kidneys.

Absorption in large intestine


Large intestine consist of thick intestine (colon) and intestine axis (rectum). The food we eat is not all absorbed will enter into colon and in the colon, the waste of food will be rottened by Escherichia coli bacteria found in colon. Besides, in colon also happens the regulation of water level. If stomach contains food it appear the stimuli from stomach continued to colon. This stimuli is called gastrocholic stimuli. This stimulus causes the appearance of pushing for defecation.

PHYSIOLOGY

Generally function of digestive processes


Digestive system activities include six functional processes: ingestion or food intake; propulsion, or movement of food through the tract; mechanical digestion, or processes that physically mix or break foods down into smaller fragment; chemical digestion, or food breakdown by enzymatic action; absorbtion, or transport of products of digestion through the intestinal mucosa into the blood; and defecation, or elimination of undigested redsidues (feces) from the body.

Regulation mekanism of digestion

Digest process begin from oral cavity. Food enter the mouth and then food will chew and swallow it into smaler part. After that, food through the esophagus and then through the pharynx.. In pharinx foods were moved to stomach by peristaltic. And in stomach, foods changes to be kim and will saved until some hours. After that, foods will through the small intestine, and then large intestine. And the last is defecation in anus.

1 Propulsion ( penelanan) Propulsion is the process that moves food through the alimentary canal. It includes swallowing, which is initiated volumtarily, and peristaltis. Peristaltis is the major means of propulsion, involves alternate waves of contractions and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls. Its net effect is to squeeze food along the pathway from one organ to the next, but some mixing occures as well. From the time food enters the pharynx, its movement is completely reflexive. In fact, the peristaltic waves are so powerful that food and fluids will reach your stomach even if you stand on your head.

Two kinds of propulsion


A. Mechanical digestion Mechanical digestion physically prepares for chemical digestion by enzimes. Mechanical digestion processes includes chewing mixing of food with saliva by the tongue, churning in yhe stomach, and segmentation, or rhytmic local constictions of the intestine. Segmentation mixing food mixes food with digestive juice and increases the rate of absorption by repeatedly moving defferent part of the food mass over the intestinal wall

B. Chemical digestion Chemical digestion is a catabolic process in which large food molecules are broken down to their monomers (chemical building block), which are small enough to be absorbed by the GI tract lining. Chemical digestion is accomplished by anzymes secreted by various glands into the lumen of the alimentary canal. The enzymatic break down of foodstuffs begins in the mouth and is essentially complete in the small intestine.

4 absorption Absorption is the transport of digestive end products (plus vitamins, minerals, and water) from the GI tract lumen to the blood or lymphs. For absorptions to accure, these substances must first enter the mucosa cells by active or passive transport processes. The small intenstine is the major absorptive side. 5 Defecation Defacation is the elimination of indisgetible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces.

Interaction between digestive system and the other body system


Digestive system is absolutely hace contact and interaction to the other body system. Example, digestive system with respiratory system. If respiratory system is disturbed, digestive system will also disturbed.

TERMOREGULATION
Human thermoregulation centered on the anterior hypothalamus, there are three components or compilers regulator of heat-regulating system, namely thermoreseptor, hypothalamus, and efferent nerves as well as thermoregulation (Swenson, 1997). Thermo: Heat Regulation: Regulation physiological thermoregulation is an arrangement of the balance of human body heat production and heat loss so the temperature can be maintained in constant body Heat is kinetic energy of molecular motion The human body is an organ that is able to produce heat independently and is not dependent on ambient temperature.

Body temperature resulting from: 1. Basal metabolic rate (basal metabolic rate, BMR) 2. Reserve rate of metabolism caused muscle activity (including muscle contraction caused shivers). 3. Additional metabolic hormones thyroxine and the effect of a small portion of other hormones, such as growth hormone (growth hormone and testosterone). 4. Extra metabolism due to the influence epineprine, norepineprine, and sympathetic stimulation on cells. 5. Extra metabolism due to increased chemical activity within the cell itself, especially when the temperature decreases.

BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION Based on the temperature distribution in the body, known as core temperature (core temperature), the temperature found on the network, such as cranial, thoracic, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity. This temperature is usually maintained relatively constant (around 37 C). In addition, there is surface temperature (surface temperature), which is contained in the skin temperature, sub-cutaneous tissue, and fat. This temperature can typically fluctuate by 30 C to 40 C.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE BODY TEMPERATURE 1. Basal metabolic rate 2. Sympathetic nerve stimulation 3. Growth hormone 4. Thyroid hormone 5. Sex Hormones 6. Fever (inflammation) 7. Nutritional status 8. Activity 9. Organ disorders 10. Environment