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4 MATHEMATICAL REASONING

The pictures below show four friends, Ali, Abu, Ah Tong and Lingam. Their ages are 14, 15, 16, and 18 years old. Lingam is 3 years older than Abu. Ah Tong is 2 years older than Ali. How old is each of them? We have to use the correct mathematical reasoning to get the answer. In this chapter, we will learn the concept of logical thinking. Abu Ah Tong Ali Lingam

Look at the following sentences (a) A cylinder is a two-dimensional shape (b) 16 is a perfect square We can determine whether sentence (a) and (b) are true or false A sentence that is either true or false but not both are statement

Look at the following sentences (c) Do not litter (d) What is your height? We cannot determine whether sentences (c) and (d) are true or false Therefore, sentences (c) and (d) are not statement A statement is a sentence that is either true or false but not both

There are 3 types of sentences, that is, those which consists of (a) words only (b) numbers and words (c) numbers and mathematical symbols SMART TIPS Sentences which are not statements include questions, instructions and exclamations.

Example Determine whether the following sentences are statements or not (a) 2 is a prime number (b) 18 is a multiple of 4 (c) Answer all questions (d) 5 + 7 = 13 (e) x + 3 = 8 (f) What is the product of 6 and 9 ? (g) -12 is less than -13

4.1 Statement

4.1a Statements and Truth Value Example Determine whether the following sentences are true or false (a) A U B is a subset of B (b) The highest common factor of 3 and 5 is 1 (c) A square is a rhombus (d) A rectangle is a square (e) Zero is a subset of all sets (f) An empty set is a subset of all sets (g) -7 < -8

4.1 Statement

4.1b Statements Using Numbers and Mathematical Symbols Example

Construct true statement involving the following numbers and mathematical symbols (a)

8, 4, 2, , =

(b)

1, 2, 3, >,x 3 x 1>2

84=2

3x2>1

4.1 Statement

4.1b Statements Using Numbers and Mathematical Symbols Example

Construct false statement involving the following numbers and mathematical symbols (a)

8, 4, 2, , = 4 2 = 8 2 8 = 4

(b)

4.1 Statement

4.1b Statements Using Numbers and Mathematical Symbols Example

Complete each of the following statements using the symbol "=", ">", or "<"

4+3 6x7

= = >

5 + 2 is true

>

4 is true

22 x 2 is false 1/2

3/6 is false

4.2 Quantifiers \All[ and \Some[ 4.2a Statements Using \All[ and \Some[

Quantifiers are words that indicate the number of objects or cases referred to in a statement.

4.2a Statements Using \All[ and \Some[

The quantifier all refers to each and every object or case. Every pentagons have 5 sides All Any All Every Any

All three statements mean that each and every pentagon has 5 sides. Therefore, the quantifier all may be replaced with every or any based on context.

4.2a Statements Using \All[ and \Some[

The quantifier some refers to one or more object or cases. Some may be replaced with several, one of and part of based on the context. Below are some examples. Some whole numbers are divisible by 5. Several whole numbers are divisible by 5. One of the factors of 4 is also a factor of 5. Part of a whole is a fraction.

4.2a Statements Using \All[ and \Some[ Example

Complete each of the following statements with an appropriate quantifier so that the statement is true. All ______ polygons have straight side. Some ______ whole numbers are multiples of 7. Some ______ factors of 4 are factors of 6. All ______ octagons have 8 sides. Some ______ negative numbers are less than -1.

4.2 b Truth Value of Statements with Quantifier \All[ Example

A statement with quantifier all may be true or false All squares have 12 edges. All integers can be written as fraction. All prime numbers do not have factors All multiples of 12 are divisible by 4. All the subsets of the set { 2,3,4,5 } contain at least one element.

One case that does not satisfy the condition is enough to change the truth value of a statement involving the quantifier all

4.2 c Generalising Statements Using The Quantifier \All[ Example

When a statement is generalised using the quantifier all, its true value may change. (a) Even numbers are divisible by two. This statement can be generalised to; All even numbers are divisible by two. (b) Polygon ABC has 3 sides. This statement cannot be generalised to; All polygons have 3 sides.

4.2 d Constructing True Statements Using The Quantifiers

All spiders have eight legs. Object: Spiders Property: Eight legs.

Given an object and property, a true statement can be constructed using the quantifiers all or some

Smart Tips

All is used when each and every object has the given property Some is used when several or at least one object has the given property

4.2d Constructing True Statements Using The Quantifiers Example

Object: Polygons Property: Straight sides

4.3a Negation of A Statement

11 is a prime number 11 is not a prime number Tan 450 = 2 Tan 450 = 2 Using the words not or no to change the truth value of a statement is referred to as negation Negation of a true statement using not or no results in a false statement and vice versa

4.3a Negation of A Statement Example

p Kites have 2 adjacent equal sides Factors of 9 are factors of 18 -2 x (-5) = 10 ~p (not p or no p) No kites has 2 adjacent equal sides Factors of 9 are not factors of 18 -2 x (-5) 10

4.3b Compound Statement Using \and[

The earth spins on its own axis and The earth orbits around the sun A compound statement can be formed from two given statements using the word and

Smart Tips

Statements that form compound statements using and may be true or false

4.3c Compound Statement Using \or[

5 equals 3 + 2 or 5 equals 6 - 1 A compound statement can be formed from two given statements using the word or

Smart Tips

Statements that form compound statements using or may be true or false

4.3d Truth Value of Compound Statement Using \and[

Completing table by writing T (true) and F (false) Number Multiple of 2 Multiple of 3 Multiple of 2 and 3

3 4 5 6

F T F T

T F F T

F F F T

A compound statement formed by combining two statements using and is (a) TRUE, when both statements involved are true (b) FALSE, when one or both statements are false

4.3d Truth Value of Compound Statement Using \and[ Example

Determine whether the following statements are true or false. (a) -3 x 2 = 6 and 5 + (-3) = 2 (b) 12 is divisible by 2 and 3

SOLUTION SOLUTION

(a) -3 x 2 = 6 is false 12 is divisible by 2 is true and 12 is divisible by 3 is true

(b)

4.3e Truth Value of Compound Statement Using \or[

Two thirsty men rushed into a shop for a drink. They were only two packets of chocolate milk left. In which of the following conditions would both have managed to get drink (assuming that they are willing to share)?

Think Tank

(a)If both packets are good, is it true they had a drink? (b)If packet A or B is good, is it true they had a drink? (c)If both packets are sour, is true they had a drink?

4.3e Truth Value of Compound Statement Using \or[

Completing table by writing T (true) and F (false) Packet A is good Packet B is good Had a drink

T T F F

T F T F

T T T F

A compound statement formed by combining two statements using or is (a) FALSE, when both statements involved are false (b) TRUE, when one or both statements are true

4.3e Truth Value of Compound Statement Using or

Example

Determine whether the following statements are true or false. (a) -3 x 2 = 6 or 5 + (-3) = 2 (b) 12 is divisible by 5 or 9

SOLUTION

(a) 5 + (-3) = 2 is true

(b)

4.4 Implications

4.4a Identifying The Antecedent and Consequent of An Implication If p, Then q

If it rains today, then I will not go jogging it rains today is the antecedent I will not go jogging is the consequent If it rains today, then I will not go jogging

p p q

4.4 Implications

4.4a Identifying The Antecedent and Consequent of An Implication If p, Then q

Example

a) If a triangle is equilateral, then it has all interior angles equal to 600 b) If x is 450, then tan x = 1 c) If a > b, then b a < 0 Consequent It has all interior angles a) A triangle is equilateral equal to 600 b) x is 450 c) a > b tan x = 1 ba<0 Antecedent

4.4 Implications

4.4b Combining Two Implications Using If and Only If Honey bee colonies consists of worker bees, drones (male bees) and queen bee. Only some female larva are selected to become queen bees. A female larva is fed with royal jelly if and only if it has been selected to become a queen bee. The last statement in the paragraph above can be written as two implications: (a) If a female larva is fed with royal jelly, then it has been selected to become a queen bee. (b) If a female larva is been selected to become a queen bee, then it is fed with royal jelly.

4.4 Implications

4.4b Combining Two Implications Using If and Only If (a) If a female larva is fed with royal jelly, then it has been selected to become a queen bee. (b) If a female larva is been selected to become a queen bee, then it is fed with royal jelly. Implications (a) and (b) can be combined using if and only if. Conversely, two implications if p, then q and if q, then p, can be summarised as p if and only if q

4.4 Implications

4.4b Combining Two Implications Using ZIf and Only If

Write two implications from each of the following. (a) x + 3 = 5 if and only if x = 2. (b) A polygon is an octagon if and only if it has 8 sides.

SOLUTION

a If x + 3 = 5, then x = 2 If x = 2, then x + 3 = 5 b If a polygon is an octagon, then it has 8 sides. If polygon has 8 sides, then it is an octagon.

4.4 Implications

4.4b Combining Two Implications Using ZIf and Only If Example

Construct an implication in the form if and only if from the following pair of implications. (a) If A B, then A B = A B (b) If A B = A, then A B

A

SOLUTION

A B if and only if A B=A

4.4 Implications

4.4b Combining Two Implications Using ZIf and Only If Example

Construct an implication in the form if and only if from the following pair of implications. (a) If a polygon has 5 sides, then it is a pentagon. (b) If a polygon is a pentagon, then it has 5 sides.

SOLUTION

A polygon is a pentagon if and only if it has 5 sides.

4.4 Implications

4.4c Converse of An Implication If x + 2 = 5, then x = 3

4.4 Implications

4.4c Converse of An Implication

Determine the truth values of each of the following implications and its converse. IMPLICATION If y = 2, then -2 x y = -4 If x < 3, then x < 0 If x is a multiple of 4, then it is a multiple of 2 If x = -3, then x 4 = -7 T/F CONVERSE If -2 x y = -4, then y = 2 If x < 0, then x < 3 If x is a multiple of 2, then it is a multiple of 4 If x -4 = -7 then x = -3 T/F

T F T T

T T F T

4.5 Argument

4.5a Premise and Conclusion of An Argument

An argument is a process of drawing a conclusion based on several given statements. The given statements are called premises. An argument consists of premises and a conclusion.

4.5 Argument

4.5a Premise and Conclusion of An Argument

Identify the premises and conclusions of the following arguments. All numbers divisible by 8 are also divisible by 4. 24 is divisible by 8, therefore 24 is divisible by 4. Premise 1 Premise 2

Conclusion All numbers divisible by 8 are also divisible by 4.

SOLUTION

24 is divisible by 8. 24 is divisible by 4.

4.5 Argument

4.5a Premise and Conclusion of An Argument

Identify the premises and conclusions of the following arguments. If n is a whole number, then 2n is an even number. 25 is a whole number, therefore 50 is an even number. Premise 1 Premise 2

Conclusion If n is a whole number, then 2n is an even number.

SOLUTION

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 1 Premise 1 : All A are B Premise 2 : C is A Conclusion: C is B

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 1 Premise 1 : All multiples of 4 are multiple of 2. Premise 2 : 12 is a multiple of 4. Conclusion: 12 is multiple of 2.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Premise 1 : All triangles have three vertices. A B All A is B

C is A Premise 2 : .

Premise 1 : All triangles have three vertices. Premise 2 : PQR is a triangle Conclusion : PQR has three vertices.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 2 Premise 1 : If p, then q Premise 2 : p is true Conclusion: q is true

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 2 Premise 1 : If a polygon has equal sides, then it is a regular polygon. Premise 2 : A square has equal sides. Conclusion: A square is a regular polygon.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Premise 1 : If x > -2, then x > 0 p q If p then q

p Premise 2 : .

Conclusion : x > 0 q Premise 1 : If x > -2 then x > 0. Premise 2 : x > -2 Conclusion : x > 0.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 3 Premise 1 : If p, then q Premise 2 : Not p is true Conclusion: Not q is true

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Based on two given premises for argument, a conclusion can be drawn for three different forms of argument. Argument 2 Premise 1 : If an integer is less than 0, then it is a negative integer. Premise 2 : 3 is not a negative integer. Conclusion: 3 is not an integer less than 0.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Premise 1 : If x + 2 = 6, then x = 4 p q If p then q

Not p Premise 2 : .

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments Completion of Arguments Premise 1 : All trapeziums have only one pair of parallel sides. Premise 2 : ABCD is a trapezium. Conclusion: ABCD has only one pair of parallel sides.

4.5 Argument

4.5b Forms of Arguments

Completion of Arguments Premise 1 : If P Q, then (Q U P) = Q

Premise 2 : (Q U P) = Q Conclusion: P Q

4.6a Reasoning by Deduction and Induction

When a general premise is considered to draw a conclusion about a specific case, the process is called deductive reasoning Area of triangle = x base x height. Triangle ABC has a base of 2 cm and height of 7 cm. So, Area of triangle ABC = x 2 x 7 = 7 cm2

4.6a Reasoning by Deduction and Induction

When specific cases (premises) are considered to draw a general conclusion, the process is called inductive reasoning 35 x 32 = 35+2 = 37 36 x 33 = 36+3 = 39 37 x 34 = 37+4 = 311 So,3m x 3n = 3m+n

4.6b Making Conclusion by Deduction and Induction Example

Make a generalization by induction for the following number sequence: 3 = 2(0) + 3 5 = 2(1) + 3 7 = 2(2) + 3 9 = 2(3) + 3 The number sequence can be written as 2n + 3 where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,

4.6b Making Conclusion by Deduction and Induction Example

Make a generalization by induction for the following number sequence: Given a general statement. A polygon with n sides can be divided into (n 2) triangles. What conclusion can you draw about a pentagon? The pentagon has 5 sides, therefore n = 5. It can be divided into (5 -2) = triangles.

Cloned SPM

(a) State whether the following statement is true or false. (-4)2 = -16 and -9 > -10 (b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence: K L = L if and only if K U L = K

(c) Complete the following argument. Premise 1 : All heptagons have 7 sides. Premise 2 : Conclusion : Figure E has 7 sides.

[5 marks]

solution

(-4)2 = -16 False -9 > -10 False True

P1

KUL=K:q L = L , then K U L = K L=L

Implication 1 : If K

L = L , then K U L = K L=L

Implication 2 : If K U L = K, then K

P1 P1

solution

Premise 1 : All heptagons have 7 sides. A B All A is B

C is A Premise 2 : .

(c) Premise 1 : All heptagons have 7 sides. Premise 2: Figure E is a heptagon Conclusion : Figure E has 7 sides.

K2

Cloned SPM

a) Is the sentence below a statement or non-statement? 4 is a prime number b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence: P R if and only if P R.

The number of subsets in a set with 2 elements is 22. The number of subsets in a set with 3 elements is 23. The number of subsets in a set with 4 elements is 24.

c) Based on the information above, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the number of subsets in a set with k elements.

solution

P1 P1 P1 K2

solution

(a) Non Statement (b) Implication 1: If P R then R P Implication 2: If R P then P R (c) 2k , k= 2, 3, 4,.

P0 P1 P1 K2

solution

P1 P1 P0 K1

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