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Embryology (from Greek , embryon, "unborn, embryo"; and , -logia) is a science which is about the development of an embryo from

the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage Divided into three stage
Cleavage Gastrulation Organogenesis

A single cell divided many times to produce multicellular organism The number of cell increase but not the size Cleavage pattern may be radial, spiral, bilateral or rotational. Cell divide into a solid mass called morula. Morula then continues to divide and forming blastula - a hollow spherical ball

Process where blastula rearranged to form three primary germ layer Beside invagination, the cell also undergo changes in motility, shape and adhesion to each other During invagination, epithelial cells bend inward (just like u poke a balloon with ur finger)

After gastrulation, the gastrula is aligned and has polarity (head region, tail region etc) Each will develop into different parts of the organism At the end of the gastrulation, gastrula has three major germ layer : ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

The germ layers will differentiate to form organs The organs that begin to take shape first are the neural tube and notochord The formation of the neural tube is called neurulation. The neural tube gives rise to both spinal cord and brain

Ectoderm Neural tube Epidermis and skin Nervous system Cornea, lens, retina Lining of nasal cavity, anus Tooth enamel Adrenal medulla

Mesoderm Dermis of skin Connective tissue Bone marrow Muscle tissue Adrenal cortex Lymphatic and circulatory system Reproductive system Excretory system

Endoderm Epithelium of alimentary canal Alveoli of lungs Tonsils Liver and pancreas Thyroid Lining of urinary bladder, uretha, vagina Anterior pituitary gland Thymus gland

Notochord is found on the ventral surface of the neural tube and is formed from dorsal mesoderm In lower animal, its act as an axial support of the body while in higher animal it is replaced by the vertebral column In human its remain as disc between the vertebrae

Last 40 weeks and divided into 3 trimester The blastocyst is implanted into the uterus by the sixth day after fertilisation Inner mass of cell of the blastocyst will develop into embryo while the outer layer will become the chorion (provide nutrient and anchor the developing embryo)

Tissue produce by the embryo ( protection and nutrition) The extraembryonic membrane are chorion, amnion, allantois and yolk sac

Transparent sac filled with colourless fluid (amniotic fluid) Amniotic fluid allows foetus to move and grow Has antibacterial function Develops from the folding of the embryo wall The amnion begin to fill with amniotic fluid about 2 weeks after fertilisation

Completely encloses the developing embryo Chorion together with allantois unite to form part of the placenta Chorionic villi > finger-like projection extend from chorion into maternal endometrium Help to anchor the foetus to the mother

Grow outwards and form a highly vascularised structure called allanto-chorion which then develop into placenta and umbilical cord Allantois arises from embryonic hind gut Has two functions

Fuse with the chorionic villi in the uterine wall to form embryos part of the placenta Form the umbilical cord

In human, yolk sac contains no yolk but is a fluid Mainly non-functional except it is the site for the early formation of blood cell

Consist of two section :

The fetal part (allanto-chorion) Maternal part (endometrium)

Chorion contains projection (chorionic villi) for gaseous exchange between mother and foetus The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta contain one umbilical vein, two umbilical arteries

Produce HCG maintain the endometrium Secrete estrogen and progesterone inhibit FSH thus preventing development other follicles and stimulate the development of mammary gland for lactation Produce RELAXIN allows uterus to expand to accommodate the growing foetus and dilates cervix and relaxes the pelvic nearer to parturition