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CLADIRI I -CURS sem I BUILDING DESIGN 1 1 st semester s.l.univ.

Ruxandra ERBASU

CAPITOLUL1/CHAPTER 1
Notiuni introductive/Introductive notions
1. Particularitati ale produselor constructii si ale activitatilor legate de acestea 2. Clasificari functionale ale constructiilor 3. Categorii si clase de importanta 4. Elemente de legiferare tehnica a activitatilor de constructii 5. Conceptul de sistem in c-tii 6. Conceptul de performanta, principalele elemente de continut 7.Directiva Europeana 89/106 CEE si Legea 10/1995 referitoare la calitatea in constructii 1. Peculiarities of constructions as products and of activities related to them 2. Functional classification of constructions 3. Importance categories and classes 4. Technical regulations in constructions 5. System concept in buildings 6. Performance concept in buildings 7. European directive 89/106/1991 and Romanian Law 10/1995 concerning quality in construction

1. Particularitati ale produselor constructii si ale activitatilor de c-tii Produsele constructii au un specific aparte, se individualizeaza prin particularitati ce tin de procesul de conceptie proiectare ,executie si intretinere exploatare: durata de viata deosebit de mare : nici un produs al activitatii umane nu este proiectat cu o durata de viata in functionare atat de mare ca in cadrul constructiilor(70-100) ani. Conceptia, proiectarea , executia si intretinerea unui obiect de constructie trebuie sa-i asigure durabilitate fizica si functionala. Produsele constructii vor fi utilizate de mai multe generatii, deci performantele lor concepute la un moment istoric, trebuie sa poate fi adaptate la cele ale generatiilor viitoare. lipsa seriei zero: pentru orice produs industrial este obligatorie verificarea solutiei de proiect rezultand prototipul pe care se fac incercari. In c-tii nu se pot testa prototipuri la scara naturala, in regim real de exploatare si cu introducerea factorului timp. Proiectul unei c-tii nu poate fi imbunatatit continuu inainte de realizarea acesteia, iar fiabilitatea depinde de o multitudine de factori unii corespunzatori momentului constructiei, altii necunoscuti in timp.

1. Peculiarities of constructions as products and of activities related to them Constructions as products are special, and are individualized through what peculiarities hold on to the process of conception, design,execution and exploitation: considerable increased life time: no other product of human activity is designed with a duration of life in operation so great as buildings( 70-100) years. The conception, the design, the execution and maintenance of a construction must assure its physical and functional durability. Constructions seen as products will be used-up of many generations, therefore their performances conceived to a historic moment, must be able to adjust to those of future generations. the absence of the zero series: for any industrial product the verification of the design solution is compulsory thus resulting the prototype on which tests are performed.In constructions, there is no posibility to test prototypes to the natural scale, in the real regime ofexploitation and with the introduction of the factor of time. The design of a construction cannot be continuously improved prior to its execution and its reliableness depends on an innumerability of factors, some corresponding to the moment of the construction, others unknown in time.

dependenta performantelor de amplasament: performantele constructiilor sunt in stransa legatura cu caracteristicile amplasamentului. In primul rand, siguranta mecanica si stabilitatea depind de caracteristicile terenului, interactiunea sol structura fiind de importanta primara in procesul de proiectare, de asemenea, amplasamentul influenteaza prin particularitatile lui climatice: vant, zapada, componenta fizico-chimica a aerului, etc.. impactul asupra mediului natural: constructiile sunt produse artificiale imobile si de mare durata a caror prezenta modifica esential mediul natural, stricandu-i echilibrul si armonia. S-a introdus conceptul de dezvoltare durabila a societatii care urmareste satisfacerea nevoilor generatiei actuale fara a compromite sansa generatiilor viitoare de a satisface propriile cerinte prezervand resursele si echilibrul mediului natural procesul de realizare are loc in mare parte in aer liber: executia de calitate devine foarte dificila cand aceasta are loc in aer liber sub actiunea directa a factorilor climatici exteriori. Resursele tehnico-materiale ocupa un volum mare, necesita spatiu de depozitare, deci operatiile de aprovizionare si productie sunt mai complexe decat in cazul altor produse.

dependency of their performances on the location: the performances of the constructions are related to the features of its location. Mechanical safety and stability depends on the ground caracteristics, the soil structure interaction being of primary importance in the process of design. In the same time, the location influences through its climatic peculiarities: wind pressure, snow quantity, physico-chemical component of the air, etc.. the impact upon the surroundings: the constructions are artificial products,motionless and of considerable life time, whose presence esentially modifiy the surroundings,damaging their equilibrium and harmony. The durable development concept of the society was introduced in the attempt of satisfying the needs of the current generation without compromising the chance of the future generations to satisfy their own requirements preserving the resources and the equilibrium of the surroundings the execution process is in progress mainly outdoor:keeping the high standards of the execution quality becomes very difficult when this is in progress in the open space, influenced directly by the climatic exterior factors.The tehnical and mechanical resources require space of storage, therefore the operations of supply and production becomes more complex

2. Clasificari functionale ale constructiilor Fiecare constructie are o destinatie functionala precisa, tiut de proiectan i, constructori i utilizatori. Criteriul de func ionalitate este cel mai important, in func ie de acesta constructiile sunt mp r ite n: cladiri Constructii civile industriale agrozootehnice

constructii ingineresti

Construc iile civile mai pot fi clasificate in: cl diri rezidentiale cladiri social culturale cladiri administrative cladiri comerciale si de administratie publica cladiri pentru transporturi cladiri pentru culte

2.Functional classification of constructions Each construction must have a well specified functional destination, known by the designers, constructors and users. The functionality criteria is the most important , function of which constructions are divided in: civil buildings industrial (def) agro-zootehnical Constructions engineering constructions Civil buildings may be: - residential - social-cultural - administrative. commercial and for public alimentation - buildings used for transport purposes - religious buildings

3.Categories and classes of building importance Specific regulations issued in Romania a few years ago stipulate designers obligations to establish the category of importance assigned to any building as a prerequisite of the design process. Accordingly, the following categories are defined: category A: buildings of exceptional importance; category B: buildings of special importance; category C: buildings of normal importance; category D: buildings of minor importance. The practical procedure to assign a certain category of importance to a building is based upon a number of factors ,namely: qualification for vital importance; social-economical or cultural importance; environmental implications; period of utilisation; adaptability to site and environmental conditions; amount of required resources (materials, energy, labour).

category A (exceptional importance):buildings whose damage could bring about catastrophic consequences, as well as buildings whose uninterrupted function is considered vital to society; category B (special importance): buildings whose survival in case of disastrous events is necessary in order to remove the consequences of these events. Here should be also included buildings having special cultural and historical value; category C (normal importance): the majority of buildings, which do not belong to other categories of importance; category D (minor importance): building whose damage entails minor consequences to peoples life and health. The category classification is a global one, regarding the construction as a whole, without referring precisely to certain exigencies.

more specific, and referring to the seismic behavior exigency, the Constructions are divided in classes of importance as follows: Class I includes buildings of vital importance to society, whose function during and immediately after an earthquake must be guaranteed. Examples: hospitals, emergency (ambulance) stations, fire stations; building for national and regional authorities with assigned duties in organising post-earthquake emergency activities; buildings for national and regional communication systems; electrical power plants with essential role for the national system; museums of national importance.

Class II includes buildings of special importance, whose damage must be restricted, accounting for their potential consequences. Examples: other buildings (than those specified for Class I) concerning health protection; schools, nurseries, kinder-gardens, hostels for children, disabled and old people; buildings with people agglomeration, churches, auditoriums, show halls, sports halls, large stores and supermarkets; buildings that shelter special artistic, historical and scientific valuable assets; industrial building and facilities with high risk of fire or emanation of toxic matters; industrial buildings that shelter special machinery and/or equipment, economically very valuable; buildings that store products of strict necessity for people in case of emergencies.

Class III includes buildings of normal risk (others than those belonging to classes I, II, IV), such as: residential buildings, hotels, hostels (except those included in Class II); current-type industrial and agro-zootechnical buildings. Class IV includes building of minor importance, such as: low importance agro-zootechnical buildings (e.g. greenhouses, onestorey buildings and facilities for domestic animals); one or two-storey individual residential buildings; other buildings that shelter low-value items and where a restricted personnel carries out activities. Presently, according to the in force regulations, both importance categories and classes must be specified on any project written and draw part.

4.Reglementari tehnice in constructii Denumite pana in 1990 prescriptii tehnice intrucat aveau un caracter descriptiv si prescriptiv, reglementarile tehnice reprezinta principala componenta a sistemului de reglementari din constructii. Acestea cuprind in principal: - Normative tehnice (coduri) - Ghiduri - Specificatii tehnice Pentru caracterizarea fiecarui tip de reglementare pot fi avute in vedere urmatoarele definitii: NORMATIVE GENERALE= reglementari cu caracter general, obligatorii, care cuprind notiuni si principii generale , terminologii si clasificari, modul de considerare a agentilor, etc. NORMATIVE TEHNICE sau CODURI=reglementari tehnice cu caracter obligatoriu care detaliaza cerintele de calitate, definesc niveluri minime de performanta pentru constructii in ansamblu sau pentru diferitele diviziuni fizice ale lor si stabilesc modalitatile de evaluare verificare ale acestora.

4. Tehnical regulations in buildings The widespread and complex activities performed in connection with building construction had to be necessarily governed by comprehensive compulsory rules, aiming and guaranteeing in the first place public health, safety and welfare. Technical regulations form an important part of this ensemble of compulsory rules for constructions and are intended to achieve: high - performance, correct, safe and sound, as well as economical design; high quality production of materials, components, elements and subensembles; high quality execution of site works, through correct application of technologies and procedures.
Due to their compulsory character, technical regulations bring an essential contribution to the unification of criteria for analysis and selection of solutions for various technical and economical problems in building construction. On the other hand, due to the same compulsory character, technical regulations obviously exert constraints upon and impose limits to various parameters in the design, manufacturing of products and execution of constructions.

GHIDURI=reglementari tehnice cu caracter obligatoriu ce contin elemente exigentiale si elemente descriptive necesare conceptiei, proiectarii si executiei unui anumit tip functional de constructie. SPECIFICATII TEHNICE= reglementari tehnice cu caracter obligatoriu care precizeaza pentru un anumit tip de constructie setul specific de criterii si niveluri de performanta, alaturi de elementele necesare pentru verificarea si evaluarea performantelor. STANDARDELE= reglementari tehnice speciale, sunt documente aprobate de un organism specializat care furnizeaza reguli, linii directoare, caracteristici tehnice, simboluri, terminologie, in scopul de a se obtine un grad ridicat de ordine conceptuala si terminologica intr-un domeniu dat. In mare, acestea pot fi impartite in urmatoarele categorii: - Standarde referitoare la materiale - Standarde referitoare la echipamente si diferite tipuri de elemente - Standarde de proiectare CODURILE sunt mult mai detaliate decat STANDARDELE.

Cateva dintre cele mai reprezentative coduri pentru constructii se refera la: proiectarea functionala ( a cladirilor cu diferite destinatii) siguranta la foc proiectare si analiza structurala (pt. diferite tipuri de structuri) geotehnica si fundatii proiectare de echipamente si instalatii proiectare de termoizolatii, hidroizolatii, invelitori proiectare de elemente si solutii de inchidere

Harmonised standards are being produced in three main categories,namely: category A standards: standards of design, codes of practice, etc. for the whole construction works (e.g. structural Eurocodes); category B standards: specifications for materials and products; category Bh standards, which may apply across a wide range of products, being related to testing methods and procedures, standards for measurement, etc. The Construction Products Directive, together with the Public Works and Service Directives, form the legal basis for the development of technical standards and harmonisation. A special technical committee is producing a series of nine basic codes Eurocodes that set out design rules and standards, covering design criteria for most types of construction works and the structural materials used. The codes are first published in the form of pre standards (ENVs), that intended to be used for the design in order to provide feedback information for modifications and improvement, where necessary, to be incorporated into the final European Standards (ENs). These latter will be transposed to replace gradually the existing national standards of the EU member states.

In the last decades a system of new technical regulations has been developed in Romania. They are organised on several hierarchic levels, interconnected to each other, and are being subjected to periodical revision and updating, in according with national and international scientific and technological progress. Lately, new editions of Romanian technical regulations are being orientated towards gradual harmonisation with those issued within the framework of the European Union.

The standards are technical regulations that establish characteristics for construction materials, elements, subensembles, equipment etc, as well as basic concepts, principles and data for design, execution and acceptance of buildings. Some typical categories of such standards are: standards for materials (e.g. steel reinforcement bars, laminated
profiles and others steel products; natural and artificial aggregates, cement, lime, water, additives for concrete; concrete - normal or with special characteristics - mortars; bricks and ceramic blocks; timber and other wooden products; thermal-insulating, acoustical-insulating and waterproofing materials, finishing materials etc);

standards for elements and equipment (e.g. plain, reinforced or prestressed prefabricated elements; partitioning elements; doors and windows; equipment for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning, water supply and drainage, waste disposal, electrical supply, telecommunication, mechanical transportation, and so on); standards for design (e.g. actions on buildings; soil mechanics and foundations ; design of plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete, steel, masonry and timber structures,; thermotechnics, acoustics and illumination of buildings; performances; modular co-ordination and tolerances; drawings etc).

The codes are more specific, are technical regulations that apply basic concepts, principles and data established by standards to various categories or types of buildings, as well as to specific or complementary problems related to their design, execution and acceptance. Some representative kinds of present Romanian codes for building construction (many of them labelled with the old term norms) are listed below, in relation with:

functional design (e.g. buildings destined to various functions, such as dwellings, hotels, schools, hospitals, theatres, sports halls, offices et al); fire safety; protection against deterioration due to natural and artificial agents; structural design and computation analysis (e.g. earthquakeresistance design, reinforced concrete structures of various types with frames or shear walls, cast-in-place or prefabricated -, masonry, steel and timber structures etc); geotechnics and foundations (e.g. shallow and deep foundations of various types, foundations on soil with special properties, strengthening of weak soils etc); reinforced concrete design and construction specific cases (e.g. lightweight concrete, cold-formed wire-mesh reinforcement, welded joints of reinforcement, formworks, concrete curing et al); masonry and walls (e.g. stone, brick, lightweight concrete and cellular concrete blocks masonry, partition walls of various types, watertightness of exterior walls joints etc);

steel design and construction specific cases (e.g. cold-formed profile elements, high-strength bolt joints et al); design and execution of roofing, insulation, waterproofing, finishes etc); design and execution of systems and equipment for heating, ventilation and air conditioning, water supply an drainage, electrical supply, gas supply, telecommunications, mechanical transportation, etc); maintenance and repair works. Other technical regulations, focused on limited and specific matters include: technical instructions, technical specifications, technological cards and procedures, as well as catalogues with unified or typified details.