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Chemical Engineering Reactor

Introduction By: Eko Ariyanto, ST.,MChemEng

Chemical Engineering Department Engineering Faculty Muhammadiyah University of Palembang

Staff
Eko Ariyanto, ST. MChemEng (lecturer)
ekochemump2002@yahoo.com 085669463967

Timetable
Lectures
Thursday 10-12 am

Consultation
Saturday 10 - 12 am (Computer Laboratory)
consultation, group project work, revisions etc.

Resources
Book
O.Levenspiel: Chemical Reaction Engineering S.Fogler: Elements of Chemical Reaction
Engineering Internet

Lecture notes
Inspired from both books

Assessment
Projects (15 %):
Project (group work) = 10 %

Individual work / Assignment = 5 %

Mid-semester - 25% Final Exam 50 % (exam period)


Attendance 10 %

Reactor Performance
Information needed to predict the reactor behaviour:
input CONTACTING PATTERNS how materials flow & contact each other? flowing patterns contact aggregation etc. Performance equation Output = f (input, kinetics, contacting) output KINETICS how fast things happen? very fast - equilibrium slow - rate, mass, heat

The Nature of the Reactor Design Problem 1. What is the composition of the feedstock, conditions, and purification Procedures? 2. What is the scale and capacity of the process? 3. Is Catalyst needs? 4. What is operating condition? 5. Continuous or batch process? 6. What type of the reactor best meets the process requirement? 7. What size and shape reactor should be used? 8. How are the energy transfer?

How to choose the reactor


Yield (should be large) Cost (Should be economic) Safety Consideration Pollution
How to Reactor Design
Firstly; You have to know reaction rate expression Secondly; fluid velocity, temperature process, composition and characteristic of species

Source of the essential data for reactor design


1. Bench scale experiment (Laboratory Scale) The reactors is designed to operate at constant temperature, under condition (minimize heat transfer and mass transfer)

2. 3.

Pilot plant studies The reactors used is larger than bench scale Operating data from commercial scale reactor The data come from another company and it can be used to design reactor. Unfortunately, data are often incomplete, inaccurate,

Reactor Type
Batch Reactors (Stirred Tanks)
1. The Batch reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel (Cylinder Tank) widely used in the process industries. A typical batch reactor consists of a tank with an agitator and integral heating/cooling system. Heating/cooling uses jacketed walls, internal coil, and internal tube.

2.

Batch reactor with single external cooling jacket

Batch reactor with half coil jacket

Batch reactor with constant flux (Coflux) jacket

Advantages
1. Batch reactor Can be stopped between batches, so the production rate is flexible 2. Batch reactors are more flexible, in that one can easly use different compositions in different batches to produces product with different spesification 3. If the process degrades the reactor in some way, a batch reactor can be cleaned, relined, etc. between batches. Where continuous reactors must run a long time before that can be done. 4. If the reactant are stirred, a batche reactor can often achieve better quality than a plug flow reactor, and better productivity than a CSTR

Batch Reactor types


semi-batch reactor

flexible system but more difficult to analyse good control of reaction speed applications: calorimetric titrations (lab) open hearth furnaces for steel production (ind.)

Ideal Batch Reactor


- design equations -

rate of rate of rate of reactant reactant reactant loss due to flow into ! flow out  chemical reaction reactor of reactor in the reactor

rate of accumulation  of reactant in the reactor

rate of reactant loss due to chemical reaction in the reactor

rate of accumulation !  of reactant in the reactor

Ideal Batch Reactor


- design equations rate of accumulation !  of reactant in the reactor rate of reactant loss due to chemical reaction in the reactor

moles A reacting (time)(volume of fluid) volume of fluid

dN A dt

(rA )V

(rA )V ! 

dN A dt

Ideal Batch Reactor


- design equations (rA )V !  dN A dt

dN A d [ N A0 (1  X A )] dX A ! !  N A0 dt dt dt

(rA )V ! N A0

dX A dt

design equation

t ! N A0

XA

dX A (rA )V

area !

t N A0

= time required to achieve conversion XA

- design equations / special cases -

Ideal Batch Reactor

t ! N A0

XA

dX A (rA )V

Const. density

N A0 t! V

XA

X A dX dX A A ! C A0 0 (rA ) ( rA )

area !

t C A0

t ! C A0

XA

C A dC dX A A ! ( rA ) C A 0 (rA )

area ! t

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor In a CSTR, one or more fluid reagents are introduced into a tank reactor equipped with an impeller. The impeller stirs the reagents to ensure proper mixing
Impeller

Some important aspects of the CSTR


At steady-state, the flow rate in must equal the mass flow rate out, otherwise the tank will overflow or go empty (transient state). All calculations performed with CSTRs assume perect mixing. The reaction proceeds at the reaction rate associated with the final (output) concentration. Often, it is economically beneficial to operate several CSTR in series. This allows, for example, the first CSTR to operate at a higher reagent concentration and therefore a higher reaction rate. In these cases, the sizes of the reactors may be varied in order to minimize the total capital investment required to implement the process. It can be seen that an infinite number of infinitely small CSTR operating in series would be equivalent to a PFR.

Advantages and Disadvantages


Kinds of Phases Present 1. Liquid phase 2. Gas-liquid rxns 3. Solid-liquid rxns Usage 1. When agitation is required Series configurations for different concentration streams Advantages 1. 2. Continuous operation Good temperature control Easily adapts to two phase runs Good control Simplicity of construction Low operating (labor) cost Easy to clean Disadvantages 1. Lowest conversion per unit volume By-passing and channeling possible with poor agitation

2.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

CSTR Reactor

- design equations -

rate of rate of rate of reactant reactant reactant loss due to flow into ! flow out  chemical reaction reactor of reactor in the reactor

rate of accumulation  of reactant in the reactor

rate of rate of rate of reactant reactant reactant loss due to flow into ! flow out  chemical reaction reactor of reactor in the reactor

(rA )V

CSTR Reactor
FA0 ! v0C A0

- design equations -

v0 ! volumetric flow FA0 ! molar flow

m / s
3

mol / s

rate of reactant flow into reactor rate of reactant flow out of reactor

FA0 (1  X A0 ) ! FA0 mol / s FA ! FA0 (1  X A )

mol / s
design equation

FA0 ! FA0 (1  X A )  ( rA )V

FA 0 X A ! (rA )V

- space-time / space-velocity spacespace Performance measures of flow reactors:

Ideal Flow Reactor

1 time required to process one reactor volume X ! !   of s  feed measured at specified conditions 
2 min every 2 min one reactor volume of feed at specified conditions is treated by the reactor

Ex.

1 number of reactor volumes of feed at specified s ! !   conditions which can be treated in unit time  X 
5 hr-1 5 reactor volumes of feed at specified conditions are fed into reactor per hour

Ex.

- space-time / space-velocity spacespacemoles A entering    volume of reactor 1 CA 0V  volume of feed  X! ! ! moles of A entering  FA 0 s     time V reactor volume ! ! v 0 volumetric feed rate

Ideal Flow Reactor

Residence time

CSTR Reactor
Design equation:

- design equations -

FA 0 X A ! (rA )V
area !

Residence time:

X V ! FA 0 C A 0

1 CA 0V V X! ! ! s FA 0 v0
V X XA ! ! FA 0 CA 0 rA
V C V C X X ! ! A0 ! A0 A v0 FA 0 rA

IA { 0

- design equations / general & special case Special case - constant density:
CA X A ! 1 CA 0

CSTR Reactor

X C  CA 0 V ! A ! A FA 0 rA CA 0 (rA )
X! V CA 0 X A CA  CA 0 ! ! rA rA v0

IA ! 0


Feed entering partially converted:  

X Af  X Ai V ! FA 0 rA f VCA 0 CA 0 (X Af  X Ai ) X! ! FA 0 rA f

Problem Solving
To find problem solving, just connect the internet and click here

Plug Flow Reactor


The plug flow reactor (PFR) model is used to describe Chemical Reaction in continuous, flowing systems. One application of the PFR model is the estimation of key reactor variables, such as the dimensions of the reactor. PFRs are also sometimes called as Continuous Tubular Reactors (CTRs)

Plug Flow Reactor


The PFR model works well for many fluids: liquids, gases, and slurries. Fluid Flow is sometimes turbulent flow or axial diffusion, it is sufficient to promote mixing in the axial direction, which undermines the required assumption of zero axial mixing. However if these effects are sufficiently small and can be subsequently ignored. The PFR can be used to multiple reactions as well as reactions involving changing temperatures, pressures and densities of the flow.

Advantages and disadvantages


Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion, run for long periods of time without labor, and can have excellent heat transfer due to the ability to customize the diameter to the desired value by using parallel reactors. Disadvantages of plug flow reactors are that temperatures are hard to control and can result in undesirable temperature gradients. PFR maintenance is expensive. Shutdown and cleaning may be expensive.

Applications
Plug flow reactors are used for some of the following applications: Large-scale reactions Fast reactions Homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions Continuous production High-temperature reactions

SteadySteady-State Plug Flow Reactor


- definition -

Characteristics:

 The composition of the fluid varies from point to point  No mixing or diffusion of the fluid along the flow path  Material balance for a differential element of volume dV (not the whole
reactor!) Material balance: =0

disappearance input ! output  by reaction  accumulation

SteadySteady-State Plug Flow Reactor


- material balance -

dV

Input of A [moles/time] Output of A [moles/time] Disappearance of A by rxn.

FA

FA  dFA (rA )dV

SteadySteady-State Plug Flow Reactor


- material balance dV

input ! output  disappearance


FA ! FA  dFA  ( rA ) dV  dFA ! (rA )dV FA ! FA0 (1  X A ) dFA ! d ?FA0 (1  X A )A!  FA0 dX A

FA 0 dX A ! ( rA ) dV
design equation

X Af dX dV A ! FA0 0  rA

SteadySteady-State Plug Flow Reactor


- design equations -

X Af dX dV A ! FA0 0  rA

X Af dX V X A ! ! FA0 C A0 0  rA X Af dX V VC A0 A X! ! ! C A0 0 v0 FA0  rA 

FA0 ! v0C A0
m v0 ! volumetric flow / s
3

IA { 0

FA0 ! molar flow mol / s

 If the feed enters partially converted

X Af dX V X A ! ! X Ai  r FA0 C A0 A
X Af dX V VC A0 A ! C A0 X! ! X Ai  r v0 FA0 A

X Af

X Af

X Ai

Fixed Bed Reactor


Solids take part in reaction unsteady state or semi-batch mode Over some time, solids either replaced or regenerated
CA,out
Regeneration

CA,in

Fluidized bed reactor


A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) is a type of reactor that can be used to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reactions. In this type of reactor, a fluid (gas or liquid) is passed through a granular solid material (usually a catalyst possibly shaped as tiny spheres) at high enough velocity to suspend the solid.

Advantages
Uniform Particle Mixing: Due to the intrinsic fluid-like behavior of the solid material, fluidized beds do not experience poor mixing as in packed beds. This complete mixing allows for a uniform product that can often be hard to achieve in other reactor designs. The elimination of radial and axial concentration also allows for better fluid-solid contact, which is essential for reaction efficiency and quality. Uniform Temperature: Many chemical reactions produce or require the addition of heat. Local hot or cold spots within the reaction bed, often a problem in packed beds, are avoided in a fluidized situation such as a FBR. In other reactor types, these local temperature differences, especially hotspots, can result in product degradation. Thus FBR are well suited to exothermic reactions. Researchers have also learned that the bed-to-surface heat transfer coefficients for FBR are high. Ability to Operate Reactor in Continuous State: The fluidized bed nature of these reactors allows for the ability to continuously withdraw product and introduce new reactants into the reaction vessel. Operating at a continuous process state allows manufacturers to produce their various products more efficiently due to the removal of startup conditions in batch process.

Disadvantages
Increased Reactor Vessel Size: Because of the expansion of the bed materials in the reactor, a larger vessel is often required than that for a packed bed reactor. This larger vessel means that more must be spent on initial startup costs. Pumping Requirements and Pressure Drop: The requirement for the fluid to suspend the solid material necessitates that a higher fluid velocity is attained in the reactor. In order to achieve this, more pumping power and thus higher energy costs are needed. In addition, the pressure drop associated with deep beds also requires additional pumping power. Particle Entrainment: The high gas velocities present in this style of reactor often result in fine particles becoming entrained in the fluid. These captured particles are then carried out of the reactor with the fluid, where they must be separated. This can be a very difficult and expensive problem to address depending on the design and function of the reactor. This may often continue to be a problem even with other entrainment reducing technologies. Lack of Current Understanding: Current understanding of the actual behavior of the materials in a fluidized bed is rather limited. It is very difficult to predict and calculate the complex mass and heat flows within the bed. Due to this lack of understanding, a pilot plant for new processes is required. Even with pilot plants, the scale-up can be very difficult and may not reflect what was experienced in the pilot trial. Erosion of Internal Components: The fluid-like behavior of the fine solid particles within the bed eventually results in the wear of the reactor vessel. This can require expensive maintenance and upkeep for the reaction vessel and pipes.