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Management Information System

situation and relationship within which communication takes place. Includes: social presence, organizational position, relationships, cultural norms, age, gender, and the topic being discussed. Social Presence: the extent to which the receiver of the message perceives it as a personal interaction with another person. It is strongly felt in face-to-face communication.
The

Communication: the personal relationship of both the sender and recipients affects the form and content of communication. Example: Performance evaluation of employees
Personal

Impersonal

Communication: the identity of the sender and receiver of the message affects the communication less because the sender and receiver act as agents or deliver of the policies and tactics of the organization. Example: payment of credit card bills and other utility bills

Anonymous

Communication: the senders identity is hidden and is used in situations ranging from the suggestion box to crime tips for the police.

Same-time

(also called synchronous) communication occurs

when both the sender and recipient are present simultaneously. Made possible by live radio or live television, and by the use of telephones

Different-time

(also called asynchronous) communication takes

place when both members are not available simultaneously. Examples include taping of TV programs and recording of phone messages

Same time Same place Presentation systems Group decision support systems (GDSS) Typical telephones Computer conferencing Video telephones and conferencing

Different time Transaction databases World Wide Web Electronic Mail Voice Mail Transaction databases World Wide Web Electronic Mail Voice Mail Fax Prerecorded radio or TV broadcast

Different place

One-Way

Communication Communication

Usually prevalent in television and radio

broadcasting
Two-Way

Promotes an interactive situation that is needed

in most business meetings. Example: video conferencing

Making

Face-to-Face Communication More Effective


Use of presentation technologies to help present

ideas more effectively in same-time, same-place meetings. The tool to be used depends on how costeffective it would be, the degree of preparation required, and the availability of the tools

Eliminating

Unnecessary Person-toPerson Communication


The emergence of online data access helps

clients search for a particular information without disturbing someone else. More and more companies use an automated system in answering questions.

Making

Communication Systematic

Since most communication systems nowadays

are automated, strict data formats are now being implemented between departments in businesses and to external customers.

Combining

and Extending Electronic Communication Functions


Computer data such as pictures, or video can

now be sent to the receiver The device used for sending and receiving might be portable The caller or receiver could be a computer not just a person

Problem

Finding Solving

The process in identifying and formulating

problems that should be solved


Problem

The process of using information, knowledge

and intuition to solve a problem that has been defined previously

1.

Intelligence

Collect and analyze data about the problem

2.

Design

Identify criteria Create alternatives Evaluate outcomes

3.

Choice

Select preferred alternative

4.

Implementation

Inform others of the decision Put the decision into effect

decision making process reflects how people make conclusion and how rational they are in deciding the best solution. Rationality: a common model for explaining how people should make decisions. Satisficing: selecting an acceptable alternative rather than an optimal or best alternative. People make decisions in limited time, based on limited information and limited ability to process the information
The

Poor

Framing

Decisions are influenced or framed by the

language or context used for presenting the issue To avoid this flaw, information systems can provide information that will help the decision makers think about the real issue

Recency

Effects

Giving decision based only on the most readily

available information Information system can provide information that will help rationalize how the most recent information might not be the most reasonable

Primacy

Effects

The difficulty of most people to change an

opinion or position about a certain issue once they have considered it. The information system can show how some information is inappropriate with the first information.

Poor

Probability Estimation

Underestimating the credibility and

reasonableness of negative and overestimating the probability of familiar and beneficial events. The information system can make it easier for the decision maker by estimating the probabilities based on relevant data

Overconfidence

Being overconfident or too complacent with the

accuracy of what they know, thus, making a preliminary conclusion. The information system should provide examples or models showing the other conclusions might also work

Escalation

phenomena

Most people have a hard time changing the

courses of action that has been adopted because of familiarization in the process, thus taking no notice to feedbacks signifying failure in the courses of action previously implemented. The information system should provide information that the current approach being implemented might not truly work.

Association

Bias

The use of past strategies to repeat the success

previously experienced even if it does not fit with the current situation. The information system should provide information on the current situation and how different it is from past situations.

Groupthink

Favoring the consensus of the group instead of

heading to unpopular ideas. The information system should provide information on the unpopular proposal and prove its weight to the situation.

Simplifies

everyday processing tasks in offices, and in businesses. Most common applications used are word processors, spreadsheets, and presenatation tools. Categories of OAS
1. 2. 3. 4.

Spreadsheets Text and image processing systems Presentation packages Personal database and note-taking systems

people exchange or share information electronically without being present in the same location Four general categories
Help

Teleconferencing: use of electronic transmission to permit same-time different-place meetings 2. Messaging Systems: enables the transmission of specific messages possible to specific individuals 3. Groupware: allows information to be shared among members of the team and for effective control of workflows 4. Intranets and Extranets
1.

The

first computerized information system that collects and stores data about transactions and sometimes controls decisions made as part of a transaction.

information to the organizations managers to assist them in the planning and decision making process needed to push the firm in a higher level. Computerized MIS generate information for monitoring performance, maintaining coordination, and providing background information about the organizations operation.
Provides

An

interactive information system that provides information, models and data manipulation tools to help make decisions in semi-structured and unstructured situations where no one knows exactly how decision should be made.

System

that supports the intellectual work of professionals engaged in design, diagnosis, or evaluation of complex situations requiring expert knowledge.