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Global Navigation Satellite Systems is a set of satellites that allow users on earth to determine there position. Several NSS are used in the world like, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo; all together form the GNSS. NSS accuracy has improved, and made it possible to find your way through a city, based only on the data gathered by your receiver from space.

Developed by the American NAVY in 1959.Also known as NAVY Navigation Satellite System. Only one satellite is required for positioning. A position can be calculated as soon as the satellite passes overhead. It can guarantee a successful measurement in 110 min at the equator.

Satellites are configured in uniform orbital precession, in six polar orbits. Six satellites. Six polar orbits. altitude: 960 km period: 106 min inclination: 90 Three ground-based monitor stations.

theory of relationship between satellites and receiver: 1. a satellite sends its exact position and time over frequency fo. 2. a receiver searches for signal over a certain frequency range above fo. 3. if the signal can be found on a certain frequency f, the receiver will continue to track this frequency as it continues to drop. 4. when fo = f, then the satellite is somewhere overhead. 5. at this point, a calculation can be performed, and the receiver can stop listening.

The calculations narrow the receiver s position to two possible locations. For anything but maritime expeditions, this would render the system useless unless the altitude is known. Other disadvantages include bad coverage, poor accuracy and the requirement that receiver physically has to wait until a satellite passes overhead.

Global Positioning System was developed by the US Department of defense. A measurement requires data from four different satellites. A successful measurement is done within 36 seconds. Each satellite must know the exact time, with an accuracy of at least 10 nanoseconds.

the configuration for the GPS that provide global coverage: 21 active satellites 3 spare satellites six orbital planes (in MEO orbit) altitude: 20,200 km period: 11h 58m inclination: 53 degree four satellites per plane five monitor stations.

Basic relationship between the satellite and receiver: 1. A receiver receives a signal from a GPS satellite. 2. It determines the difference between the current time and the time submitted over the frequency. 3. It calculates the distance of the satellite from the receiver, knowing that the signal was sent at the speed of light. 4. The receiver receives a signal from another two satellites, and again calculates the distance from them. 5. Knowing its distance from three known locations, the receiver triangulates its position.

GPS coverage is relatively poor. especially in places where there are many large obstructions in the receiver's horizon. microwave frequencies are very sensitive. signals may bounce, or be blocked entirely.

A European GNSS developed in 2004. Satellites have a relatively lightweight of 625kg. Satellites broadcast over a wider spectrum of frequencies than GPS. Services: 1. Open service 2. Safety of life service 3. Commercial service 4. Public regulated service 5. Search and rescue service.

the major difference from other systems is that its configuration uses only three planes instead of six 27 active satellites 3 spare satellites three orbital planes (in MEO orbit) altitude: 23,616km period: 14h 4m inclination: 56 degree 10 satellites per plane

Has the same relationship between satellite and receiver an GPS. Design advantages: 1. Increased power output with Lithium-Ion batteries. 2. Lightweight and compact. 3. Laser retro-reflector allows pinging from earth by laser. 4. Upgradeability with extra payloads.

5. Communication amongst satellites by InterSatellite Link (ISL). 6. Can be injected directly into the correct orbit by the launcher. 7. Launchers can accommodate two to eight satellite vehicles.

Meteorogical Satellites
They observe and transmit information to the stations located on the earth s surface. They serve as collector of global visible and infrared cloud data and other specialized meteorological, oceanographic and solargeophysical data. The are of two types, Polar orbiting and Geostationary.

Satellite Sensor System

Most sensors are designed to measure photons. A negatively charged detector (light-sensitive material) is subjected to the beam of photon. Electrons are emitted at the contact of photons with the detector. The electrons can then be made to flow from the plate, collected, and counted as a signal.

Information Classification
a) Spatial information: obtaining the required information over a 2-dimantional plane. b) Spectral information: for certain applications, the spectral details of an electromagnetic signal are of crucial importance (ex. Atmospheric layers). c) Intensity information: the measure the intensity of the EM radiation reflected from the object to know the dielectric properties and the roughness of the object.

Principle of satellite remote sensing

All objects emit electromagnetic radiation. The hotter the source, the greater is the intensity of emission. Substances which absorb all the radiation falling on them at every wavelength are called black bodies . The coefficient of absorption is then unity. Most substances, however, are not perfect black bodies. Their emissivity is less than unity. Unlike solids and liquids, gases are not black bodies. They only absorb or emit strongly at certain wavelengths.

Satellite Imagery:
a) Visible (VIS) - imagery derived from reflected sunlight at visible and near infrared wavelength (0.4 - 1.1 m). b) Infrared (IR) imagery derived from emissions by the earth and its atmosphere at thermal infrared wavelengths (10-12 m). c) Water Vapor (WV) imagery derived from water vapor emissions (6-7 m). d) Images from microwave radiometer such as Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and TRMM Microwave Imagers.

RADAR is an acronym for Radio Detection And Ranging. RADAR is an object detection system that uses EM waves to identify the range, altitude, direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircrafts, ships, weather formations and terrain.

Principle of operation
Reflection of electromagnetic waves. Measurement of running time of transmitted pulses. RADAR observables: Target range Target angle(azimuth & elevation) Target size Target speed (Doppler) Target features (imaging)

Components of RADAR system

Synchronizer Transmitter Antenna Duplexer Receiver Display unit Power supply

Radio Waves
Type of EM radiation Travel with speed of light Wavelength 100 meters to 30cm Frequency 3MHz to 1000MHz Naturally occurring Artificially generated

Applications of RADAR
Search RADAR scans a large area Targeting RADAR scans a small area Navigational RADAR used on commercial ships and aircrafts Mapping RADAR remote sensing and geographic applications Weather RADAR locate precipitation, its motion and future Air traffic control.

RADAR is a way to detect and study far off objects by transmitting a radio pulse in the direction of the target and observing the reflection of the wave.

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