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INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP


COMPOSITE IPR
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Composite IPR (1)
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Nearly all producing formations are stratified to some
extent. This means that the vertical borehole in the
production zone has different layers having different
reservoir pressures, permeabilities, and producing fluids.
If it is assumed that there are no other communication
between these formations (other than the wellbore), the
production will come mainly from the higher permeability
layers.
P
r1
,
k
1
,..
P
r2
,
k
2
,..
P
r3
,
k
3
,..
q
1

q
2

q
3

q
1
+q
2
+q
3
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Composite IPR (2)
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As the wells rate of production is gradually
increased, the less consolidated layers will begin to
produce one by one (at progressively lower GOR),
and so the overall ratio of production (q
1
: q
2
: q
3
) will
fall as the rate is increased.

q
1

q
2

q
3

(q
1
+q
2
+q
3
)>>>
P
wf
<<
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Composite IPR (3)
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If, however, the most highly depleted layers
themselves produce at high ratios because of high
free gas saturations, the overall GOR will eventually
start to rise as the rate is increased and this climb will
be continued (after the most permeable zone has
come onto production).
q
1

q
2

q
3

q
1
+q
2
+q
3
>>
GOR total >>


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Composite IPR (4)
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Thus, it is to be expected that a well producing from a
stratified formation will exhibit a minimum GOR as the
rate of production is increased.

q
1
q
2
q
3
q
1
+q
2
+q
3
>>
GORtotal >>
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Composite IPR (5)
6
One of the major concerns in a multiplayer system is that
interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced
from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. This
cross-flow greatly affects the composite IPR of the well, which
may result in an optimistic estimate of production rate from the
commingled layers.
q
1
q
2
q
3
q
1
+q
2
+q
3
>>
GOR total >>
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Composite IPR (6)
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El-Banbi and Wattenbarger (1996, 1997)
investigated productivity of commingled gas
reservoirs based on history matching to
production data. However, no information was
given in the papers regarding generation of IPR
curves.
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Composite IPR (7)
Pseudosteady-state flow prevails
in all the reservoir layers.

Fluids from/into all the layers
have similar properties.

Pressure losses in the wellbore
sections between layers are
negligible (these pressure losses
are considered in Chapter 6 where
multilateral wells are addressed).

The IPR of individual layers is
known.
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q
1
q
2
q
3
q
1
+q
2
+q
3
>>
GORtotal >>
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On the basis of Assumption 1, under steady-flow conditions, the principle of
material balance dictates

net mass flow rate from layers to the well = mass flow rate at well head

or
PENGEMBANGAN PERSAMAAN COMPOSITE IPR
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Fluid flow from wellbore to reservoir is indicated by negative qi

Using Assumption 2 and ignoring density change from bottom hole to well
head, Eq. (3.36) degenerates to
PENGEMBANGAN PERSAMAAN COMPOSITE IPR
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Single-Phase Liquid Flow
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The reservoir Pressure is
above the Bubble Point
Pressure
The flowing bottom hole
pressure also above the
Bubble Point pressure
J
*
i
is the productivity index
of layer I
IPR Equation for composite
reservoirs and single phase

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Maximum Production Rate
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For a single layer
formation, Q
max
is
determine at P
wf
= 0
It is different for
composite formations
Each formation has
different values of Q
max
,
but should have the same
bottom hole pressure
It should be borne in mind
that P
wfo
is a dynamic
bottomhole pressure
because of cross-flow
between layers.
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Two-Phase Flow Composite IPR
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Developed based on
Vogels IPR Curve

Composite Two-
Phase IPR Curve

Wells Maximum Flow
Rate

The flowing bottom
hole pressure at Q
max

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Two Phase IPR Pr > Pb
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Case Study (1)
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Case Study (2)
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Case Study (3)
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The composite IPR for Group 1 (D3 and D4) is the same as shown in Fig. 3.15 because
these two layers were the commingle-tested.
Composite IPRs of Group 2 and Group 3 are plotted in Figs. 3.17 and 3.18. Table 3.2
compares production rates read from Figs. 3.16, 3.17, and 3.18 at some pressures.

This comparison indicates that significant production from Group 1 can be achieved at
bottom-hole pressures higher than 2658 psi, while Group 2 and Group 3 are shut-in.
A significant production from Group 1 and Group 2 can be achieved at bottomhole
pressures higher than 2,625 psi while Group 3 is shutin.

The grouped-layer production will remain beneficial until bottom-hole pressure is
dropped to below 2,335 psi where Group 3 can be open for production.
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FUTURE IPR CURVES
PERAMALAN KURVA IPR
Np meningkat, P-r turun, maka Productivity Index turun
(?)
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Persamaan Aliran Dua Fasa
Dinyatakan sebagai
Fungsi tekanan
K
ro
sebagai fungsi
saturasi minyak
S
o
= f(P)
Berubah thd Waktu
Dan Tekanan
J dipengaruhi oleh k
ro
/
o
B
o
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Persamaan Aliran Dua Fasa
Perubahan Kurva IPR di waktu mendatang
ditunjukkan oleh perubahan slope, yang
ditunjukkan oleh perubahan productivity index,
J.
Untuk kondisi aliran 2 fasa, untuk setiap kurva
IPR harga productivity index dinyatakan sebagai
dq/dP
wf
= J
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Perubahan Productivity Index (1)
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Perubahan Productivity Index (2)
Muskat menyatakan
bahwa perbandingan
Productiviy Index pada
dua waktu produksi
yang berbeda dapat
dinyatakan sebagai
perbandingan:

Productivity Index
didefinisikan sebagai
slope dari kurva IPR

2
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o o
ro
o o
ro
B
k
B
k
J
J

wf
dP
dq
J =
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LOGO
Peramalan IPR
r
max o
*
p
P
Q 8 . 1
J =
Productivity Index, (dq/dP
wf
) yang merupakan turunan
dari persamaan Vogel adalah sebagai berikut:
Subscript p menyatakan kondisi saat ini (present
condition)
Berdasarkan persamaan
aliran 2 fasa, perbandingan
productivity index pada
kondisi saat ini dan yang
akan datang, dinyatakan:
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Peramalan IPR
Berdasarkan hasil turunan productivity index, maka
dapat ditentukan Laju Produksi Minyak Maksimum
untuk waktu produksi mendatang :
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Persamaan Fetkovich
Asumsi bahwa hubungan
antara k
ro
/
o
B
o
terhadap
tekanan adalah linier,
sehingga perbandingan
k
ro
/
o
B
o
pada dua harga
tekanan sama dengan
perbandingan
tekanannya

Dengan demikian
perbandingan productivity
index dapat dinyatakan
sebagai
ri
r
P
o o
ro
P
o o
ro
P
P
B
k
B
k
ri
r
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

2 r
1 r
2
1
P
P
J
J
=
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LOGO
Persamaan Fetkovich
rf
ri
Pr
Pr
P
P
J
J
f
i
=
n
2
wf
2
rf Pr o
P P J q
f
=
n
2
wf
2
rf
ri
rf
i Pr o
P P
P
P
J q =
ri
rf
Pr Pr
P
P
J J
i f
=
Harga J
Pri
dan n
diperoleh dari
data test isochronal
pada P
ri
Dengan anggapan
bahwa J dan n
tidak berubah
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Persamaan Fetkovich
Jika harga n pada persamaan Fetkovich dianggap berharga 1.0,
maka perbandingan antara laju produksi maksimum pada dua
harga tekanan reservoir yang berbeda dapat dinyatakan sebagai:
3
1 r
2 r
1 max o
2 max o
P
P
Q
Q
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
ri
rf
i max o f max o
P
P
Q Q
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
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Persamaan Peramalan IPR - PS
( ) ( ) { }
wf r
w
e
3
o
P m P m
S 5 . 0
r
r
ln
kh 10 08 . 7
q
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

( )
r
w
e
3
max o
P m
S 5 . 0
r
r
ln
kh 10 08 . 7
Q
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

( )
( )
ri
rf
i max o
f max o
P m
P m
Q
Q
=
Pada P
wf
= 0 maka Q
o,max
:
Perbandingan Q
omax
awal terhadap Q
omax
yang akan datang:
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LOGO
Persamaan Peramalan IPR - PS
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ri
rf
ri
rf
P
P
429922 . 3 exp 033210 . 0
P m
P m
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ri
rf
ri
rf
P
P
152343 . 4 exp 015215 . 0
P m
P m
API > 40
API < 40
( )
( )
ri
rf
i max o f max o
P m
P m
Q Q =
Persamaan IPR PS
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LOGO
Persamaan IPR PS
S c
3
S c
1 n
4 2
e c e c a + =
a
n
c
1
c
2
c
3
c
4

a
1
0.1829220 -0.3644380 0.8145410 -0.0558730
a
2
-1.4769500 -0.4566320 1.6462460 -0.4423060
a
3
-2.1492740 -0.1959760 2.2892420 -0.2203330
a
4
-0.0217831 0.0882860 -0.2603850 -0.2108010
a
5
-0.5524470 -0.0324490 -0.5832420 -0.3069620

r
wf
D
P
P
P =
30
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