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WELCOME

to RMD 557 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (For the Social Sciences)


Passport to skillful writing of assignments, reports, and dissertations.
By

SULAIMAN SHAMSURI Presented by : Md. Sabri Mohamad (2)

FIRST SEGMENT

INTRODUCTION
This is a comprehensive and an intensive forty-two hour in-class interaction aimed at orienting students to the basic knowledge related to Research Methods for the Social Sciences.

CPE 6143
The module is administered over fourteen weeks @ three hours - total 42 hours. THREE TESTS THROUGHOUT THE SEMESTER
  

First test (after three weeks) Second test (after eight weeks) Final Assignment (after twelve weeks)

- (30 %) - (30 %) - (40 %)

THE MEANING OF RESEARCH


(What is research) GENERALLY, RESEARCH MEANS FINDING OUT
EG: BEFORE BUYING A HOUSE IT IS SENSIBLE TO FIND OUT:
  

 

Which is the best buy for the money you can afford. (this might entail reading Housing Journals, magazines, ask friends, going round housing areas, etc. If you did such a survey thoroughly, you would have all the information that will help you to decide what house to buy. However, the research you have carried out would never be able to tell you precisely which house to buy. All it can is to put you in a position where you can make an informed judgement - but it is certainly helpful to you. Much of our daily decision making is based on this kind of FINDING OUT research. The research is WHAT HOUSE TO BUY? We would have to decide what information is needed, how it can be collected, what factors are relevant, and how the information can be used.

IMPORTANT The above example is known as PERSONAL RESEARCH because for most part, it is unlikely that you would have to tell other people about them. This is because it is a them. PERSONAL QUESTION. QUESTION.

TWO COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH


Personal / Professional (Scientific)
 What is Personal Research The subject for whom the research is sought is very personal in nature. The method which the individual seeks the information affects the individual in particular and not others. The information sought by the individual is relevant only to the individual concerned, rather than to another person.

WHAT IS PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH


Definition: Definition: PR IS A SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRY WHICH IS REPORTED IN A FORM WHICH ALLOWS THE RESEARCH METHOD AND THE OUTCOMES TO BE ACCESSIBLE TO OTHERS. OTHERS.

How Professional Research Differs from Personal Research: Research:




Professional Research is carried out in a broader and more public context and so is expected to conform to standards which are understood and recognised by others in the professional field. field. Professional Research is characterised by being rigorous and systematic, persued through the use of appropriate research methods. The outcomes of professional research culminates in a report to some kind, which also needs to conform to accepted standards.

TERMINOLOGIES / TERMS REFERRED TO IN RESEARCH


What is research? What is a Research Problem? What is a Research Question? What is a Hypothesis? What is a Theory? Methodology Review of Related Research and Literature
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Categories of Professional Research Qualitative / Quantitative


Characteristics of Qualitative Research : Research over matters that cannot be accounted very specifically (example: attitude, feelings, opinion, perception, etc.) The findings cannot be expressed in numbers. The findings are based on generalizations. Non-measurable evidence.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research :


Quantifiable, countable evidence. E.g.: IQ of 120 Research aimed at getting specific result. E.g.: Experimental Research Observation is more explicit - easier to understand. Measurable evidence.

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THE GENERAL ORDER OF THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH




IDENTIFICATION OF A PROBLEM (Problem of some sort - unexplained affair - disrupts the normal state of affair). DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM (What is the actual problem - try to be specific). specific). FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES (Guess any possible cause(s) of the problem). problem). TEST THE HYPOTHESES FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
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DIFFERENT RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES


 There

are different research methodologies which can be adopted to address different kinds of research questions. method consists of a number of different stages, all of which are followed through systematically.

 Each

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1.0 PRACTICAL RESEARCH




Describes an area of research resulting in a product or products, such as paintings, musical compositions, teaching packs or pieces of furniture. The report takes a variety of forms:
 

1.1 The title, which is a summary description of the topic pursued. 1.2 The purpose of the enquiry, that is the problematic issue which the research is directed to examine. 1.3 The methodology adopted 1.4 The success and significance of the outcomes

 

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2.0 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 3.0 ACTION RESEARCH 4.0 HISTORICAL RESEARCH 5.0 PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH 6.0 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH


Descriptive research sets out to seek accurate and adequate description of activities, objects, processes, and persons. Stages in descriptive research.


Examine the problematic situation. State the hypotheses. Select appropriate subject and source materials. Define data collection technique. Collect data. Analyze data. Derive the findings, conclusions and recommendations. Write the report.
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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH (Continued)


There are several forms of descriptive research  Surveys : Surveys are concerned with collecting data about the occurrence or incidence of events from respondents. Instruments used may be questionnaire, interview sheets, and observation schedules.

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Descriptive Research (Continued)




Causal-Comparative studies : These are studies set out to determine the relationship which exists between different factors. Eg; the level of smoking and health failure. Correlational Studies: Correlations are statistical relationship based on quantitative measures on two or more parameters. Eg: Data acquired from a sample of smokers, it may be found that frequency of smoking correlate with personality factors.
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Descriptive Research (Continued)




Case studies : Case studies are in-depth studies of particular events or situations or even people, objects and procedures. Eg. Traffic accidents during festive seasons.

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Descriptive Research (Continued)




Developmental Studies: Development may be describes as change which is assumed to occur over time as a sequence over factors, such as growth, decay, maturation, education and experience. Two main kinds of Developmental Studies:

Longitudinal Studies refer to one in which some subjects or phenomena are studied over a period of time. Cross-sectional Studies are comparisons of subjects at different stages of their development.
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SECOND SEGMENT

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WHEN TO BEGIN A RESEARCH...


When there is a problem of some sort that is bordering the community / society / nation. The problem must be of significant importance to justify a research. When there is an unexplained phenomena When there is a need to determine the truth of existing fact or theory.

NOTE: MAKE SURE TO DEFINE THE PROBLEM CLEARLY AND CORRECTLY. DO NOT SIMPLY DO A RESEARCH WITHOUT DEFINING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM(S).
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HOW TO BEGIN A RESEARCH...


In order to achieve excellence in research it must be scientifically and academically administered. Therefore, the following approaches are desired. Read relevant and related research works by previous researchers. Refer to as many related literature as possible. Discuss with others for opinion and ideas. Get familiar with the meaning, role, and the research process.
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WHAT TO BEGIN IN A RESEARCH...


Narrow the scope for research. Provide the research title. Determine the research design. State the Methodology. Write the PROPOSAL. YOU ARE NOW ON THE RIGHT TRACK TO CARRY OUT YOUR RESEARCH.

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THE RESEARCH PROCESS


1. A PROBLEM STATEMENT (What caused it to be a problem; the rational of studying it). problem; it). HYPOTHESES (A prediction of possible cause or causes). causes). DEFINATION (S) (All key terms in the problem statement and hypotheses should be identified as clearly as possible). possible). REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH & LITERATURE (Identify past researches and briefly summarize their results; Indicate briefly why the proposed results; study should be an extension of this prior knowledge). knowledge). INSTRUMENTATION (Mention clearly and in detail each of the measuring instruments that will be used to collect data for the study). study). METHODOLOGY / PROCEDURES (This is the actual work that the researcher will do - what; when; where; how and with whom what; when; where; from beginning to end, in the order in which the research occurs). occurs). DATA ANALYSIS (The statistical technique, both descriptive and inferential, to be used to analyze data should be described). described). 24 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

A RESEARCH MODEL
DEFINE THE PROBLEM Choose a topic for research REVIEW THE LITERATURE Become familiar with existing theory and research on the subject FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS State the problem as a testable hypothesis and construct operational definitions of variables CHOOSE A RESEARCH DESIGN Select one or more research method: experiment, survey, observational study, or use existing sources COLLECT THE DATA Collect and record information in accordance with the research design ANALYZE THE RESULTS Arrange the information in orderly form and interpret the Findings, Confirm, Reject, or Modify the Hypothesis DRAW A CONCLUSION Discuss the significance of the findings relating then to existing theory and research and defining problems for future research
THIS CHART SHOWS THE SEVEN BASIC STEPS THAT A RESEARCHER MIGHT FOLLOW IN ANY RESEARCH PROJECT

ACADEMIC RESEARCH REQUIRES REFERENCES TO RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE

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REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE


1.0 DEFINITION (WHAT IS IT?)

1.1 Related work is any research work done by other people before you, which you perceive has some relevancy to the research you intend to carry out. 1.2 Related literature is any book, journal, magazines, tabloids, or even newspapers in which you could refer when carrying out your research.

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REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE(continued)


2.0 USES OF RELATED RESEARCH / LITERATURE

2.1 Act as catalyst to your research. Related research and literature facilitate new idea that enhances writing. 2.2 RR / RL facilitate research because they provide some guidance on how to carry out your own research work. 2.3 RR/ RL as cosmetic to your research. The presence of RR / RL illustrate of wide reading by the researcher.

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REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE(continued)


3.0 WAYS TO APPROACH RR / RL

3.1 Read carefully, try to understand in depth, analyze part by part and explore the angle that your could approach your research. 3.2 Summarize the whole context of the research / literature first, then summarize the particular aspect that your area of research could refer. 3.3 Think how to approach your own writing. Any reference made from this RR / RL must be appropriately acknowledged.

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REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE(continued)


4.0 RELATED RESEARCH / LITERATURE IN THE MAIN TEXT

4.1 Get five related research & related literature, summarize each research or literature but only the particular aspect which is relevant to your area of research. 4.2 Each related research or literature must be in its original idea. You should not give any comment whatsoever on each piece of work that you have selected for reference. 4.3 Arrange separately in your main text of the dissertation which appear as Chapter 2.

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THIRD SEGMENT

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COLLECT DATA
    

Decide what data to collect. (Refer to the Proposal). Decide what instrument (s) to use. Decide the approach (es) to collect data. Determine the primary & secondary data. Arrange data based on their importance.
(The second through the fifth bullet has been decided in the Methodology)

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DATA
REFERS TO THE KINDS OF INFORMATION RESEARCHS OBTAIN ON THE SUBJECTS THEIR RESEARCH

Demographic e.g.: age, gender, ethnicity, religion

Responses to the researchers questions e.g.: interviews, written replies

Scores from a Researcher prepared tests Essay written by respondents, Grade-point average obtained From school records

Performance Logs kept by coaches

ALL THESE CONSTITUTE VARIOUS KINDS OF DATA THAT RESEARCHERS MIGHT WANT TO COLLECT AS PART OF A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION 33

TWO CATEGORIES OF DATA IN RESEARCH


1.0 QUALITATIVE DATA
QD refers to any information acquired from research activities. It may activities. be in the forms of an essay, a paragraph, a sentence, or a phrase. QD phrase. includes an observation, a discussion, anecdote (brief summary), a letter or a diary. diary.

2.0 QUANTITATIVE DATA


Quantitative data refers to specific numbers or amount which can be counted, calculated and measured. measured.

To further illustrate the differences in meaning take the Malay Film LENJAN as an example. If someone ask you about the theme of the film, example. the plot, the characters and the message, these he requires data qualitative in nature. However, if he asks you how many times you saw the nature. film then this is a data quantitative in nature. nature.

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CLASSIFICATION OF DATA IN RESEARCH


All data either Qualitative or Quantitative could be classified into PRIMARY or SECONDARY. 1.0 PRIMARY DATA
This is the main data that the researcher obtains directly from the respondents, interviews, and observation. Primary data is most important in observation. research. research.

2.0 SECONDARY DATA


Secondary data are minor facts or additional facts acquired through other sources of least important such as books, magazines, newspapers, or comments from unreliable people. people. Between primary and secondary data the former is more essential because it is more original in nature, perfect, and complete. Primary data is imperative to reach complete. a valid and reliable findings. Without the primary data no research is completed. findings. completed. Secondary data is less important because the sources are uncertain and that they do not conform to the requirement of the research. Without the secondary data research. the research is still possible to complete. complete.
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INSTRUMENTS

Any device / material that the researcher uses to collect data throughout his research is called instrument(s). Among these instruments are questionnaire, interview questions, rating scales, test scores, laboratory equipments, and writing materials. It is rather impossible to carry out a research without the required instruments.

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INSTRUMENTATION
The whole process of collecting data is called instrumentation. Instrumentation involves not only the selection or the design of the instruments but also the conditions under which the instruments will be administered. (Please refer to the chart below).

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INSTRUMENTATION(continued)

ADMINISTRATION Who will collect data? The researcher or helpers.

LOCATION Where data is collected? Is it in the classrooms, homes, road-sides or super markets.

INSTRUMENTATION

DATE / TIME When data is collected? Is it in the morning, Afternoon or School holidays.

FREQUENCY How frequent data is Collected - every day, Or every alternate days.

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THE MEANING OF POPULATION


A population is the group to which the results of the study are intended to apply. Eg: All youths who smoke cigarettes in Malaysia. Choose a location to carry out the research. Eg: Meet youths who smoke cigarettes in the area of Shah Alam. May be 5,000 youths. This is known as Target Population. A small group of smoking youths to which a researcher is able to generalize is known as Accessible Population.

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POPULATION AND SAMPLES


ALMOST ALL SCIENTIFIC METHODS OF RESEARCH ENQUIRY OBTAIN INFORMATION FROM PEOPLE. SOME EXCEPTION COULD BE THE HISTORICAL METHOD. QUITE OFTEN METHOD. HISTORICAL RESEARCH OBTAINS INFORMATION FROM ARTIFACTS, RECORDS, FROM ARCHIVES, GOVT. DOCUMENTS, HISTORY BOOKS, JOURNALS AND PERSONAL ACCOUNTS OF THE PAST.

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SAMPLE AND SAMPLING METHOD


If the researcher chooses only 20% of the 5,000 smoking youths to represent the whole population of smokers, the number would be 1,000. These 1,000 smokers are known as SAMPLES. There are several ways to choose samples from the accessible population. The whole process is known as SAMPLING METHOD. Therefore, SAMPLING METHOD METHOD. refers to the process of selecting individuals from the target population.

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SAMPLING METHOD
RANDOM SAMPLING
FOUR TYPES OF RS

Simple Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Random Sampling

SAMPLING METHOD

TWO APPROACHES

NON-RANDOM SAMPLING
Explain the distinction between Random & Non-Random Non-

TWO TYPES OF NON RS

Convenience NonRandom Sampling Purposive NonRandom Sampling


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FOURTH SEGMENT

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FOURTH SEGMENT

RESEARCH PRESENTATION.
l

1. The process of writing


When?; What? and How?

2. The content
Chapter One : Introduction; Statement of the Problem; Statement of Significance; Methodology. Chapter Two : Review of Related Research and Literature. Chapter Three : Analysis of Questionnaire Data. Chapter Four : Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations.

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FOURTH SEGMENT (continued)


WRITTEN CONVENTION OF RESEARCH METHOD
1. The Audience 2. The Contents of the dissertation y Title page y Abstract of the Research y List of Contents y List of Tables (if any) y List of Figures (if any) y List of Appendices (if any) y Acknowledgements y Text (the main body of dissertation) y Appendices (if any) y Bibliography.

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FOURTH SEGMENT (continued)

RULES TO OBSERVE IN WRITING ACADEMIC REPORTS


y CLARITY (of words / phrases / sentences / avoid ambiguity y ORGANIZATION OF FACTS y CONSTRUCTION (planning of materials etc) y TENSES y WRITE IN THIRD PERSON

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FOURTH SEGMENT (continued)

PLANNING FOR PRESENTATION


y Preparation of the draft but with perfection y Note the initial ideas y Every fact should be confidently presented y Text must be prepared with absolute perfection y Proper referencing and bibliographies

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ACADEMIC RESEARCH REQUIRES REFERENCES TO RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE


  

Definition (What is it?) Uses of related research Ways to approach related research and literature Related research / literature in the main text

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START TO THINK POSSIBLE AREA FOR YOUR RESEARCH


      

Identify issues Design your research title State the problem Significant of the problem Formulate hypotheses Review related research and literature Plan method of research

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PREPARE A PROPOSAL
WHY NEED A PROPOSAL?
   

Provides clear direction. Control the scope for research. Proposal provides methodology for good research. Proposal enhances the input and the output of the research.

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WHAT IS A PROPOSAL?
WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANCE OF A PROPOSAL?

A PROPOSAL IS A SUMMARY OF AN INTENDED WORK TO BE EXPANDED AND PRESENTED AT A LATER DATE. IT IS A RESEARCH EITHER FOR AN ACADEMIC THESIS OR FOR A CONSULTANCY WORK.

*AS A CONTROL MECHANISM SO THAT THE RESEARCH WORK DOES NOT GO BEYOND THE BOUNDARY.

*TO GUIDE THE RESEARCHER - WHAT, WHERE, AND HOW TO ORGANIZE HIS WORK.

*KNOWLEDGE IN DEVELOPING A PROPOSAL COULD ENHANCE WRITING A WORKING PAPER AND A THESIS.

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WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL


1.0 INTRODUCTION
THIS IS A STATEMENT OF FACTS, THEORIES, AND PERSONAL CONCERNS WHICH LEADS THE RESEARCHER TO BELIEVE THAT THERE IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM WORTH STUDYING. STUDYING.

2.0 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY


THE RESEARCHER IS CONVINCED THAT THE STUDY IS IMPORTANT TO ESTABLISH CERTAIN FACTS. HE MAY ALREADY HAD A FACTS. HYPOTHESIS TO BE DETERMINED. DETERMINED.

Continue next page...

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WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL(continued)

3.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


THIS IS ACTUALLY A STATEMENT OF THE TASK OR TASKS TO BE FULFILLED IN A CONCISE, CLEAR AND EXPLICIT MANNER. IT NORMALLY STARTS WITH, THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY IS THREE FACTORS RELATED TO THE PROBLEMS TO BE STUDIED. STUDIED. 3.1 Delimitation The researcher should confine his study to a small scope rather than going astray. astray. 3.2 Limitation A fact about constraints that the study is facing throughout. throughout. 3.3 Hypotheses These are intelligent guesses which are to be tested for the purpose of getting the findings. findings.

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WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL(continued)

4.0 RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE


THE RESEARCHER SHOULD DECLARE IF HE HAD COME ACROSS SIMILAR WORKS BY PREVIOUS RESEARCHERS. SPECIFY WHETHER RESEARCHERS. HIS IDEA IS GENERATED FROM THOSE WORKS OR WHETHER HIS WORK IS AN EXTENSION OF ONE OF THOSE PIECES. RESEARCHERS PIECES. ARE ENCOURAGED TO READ AS MANY LITERATURE TO ENRICH HIS IDEA. IDEA. SUMMARIZE WHICH ASPECT OF THE WORK OR LITERATURE THAT REFERENCE IS MADE BY THE RESEARCHER. RESEARCHER.

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WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF A PROPOSAL(continued)


5.0 METHODOLOGY
THE RESEARCHER NEEDS TO DECLARE THE METHOD USED TO COMPLETE THE STUDY. A BRIEF, CLEAR AND CONCISE EXPLAINATION FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END IS NECESSARY. EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: 5.1 The place where the research is carried out. out. 5.2 The type of sampling method used. used. 5.3 Who the respondents are. are. 5.4 How data is collected, through questionnaire or interview.. interview 5.5 Scales used. used. THIS PART IS MOST DIFFICULT BECAUSE THE RESEARCHER IS PEERING INTO THE FUTURE.

6.0 OUTLINE OF THESIS


CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 : : : : PLAN OF THE STUDY RELATED RESEARCH & LITERATURE DATA ANALYSIS / REPORT OF THE FINDING SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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HOW DOES A PROPOSAL LOOKED LIKE


General discussion on how to write a complete Research Proposal. Follow the following sub-headings. subTITLE OF THE PROPOSAL Introduction Significance of the Study Statement of the Problem
   Delimitation Limitation Hypotheses

Review of Related Research & Literature Methodology / Procedure Chapter Outline Bibliography
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INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING THESIS PROPOSAL




Thesis proposal ought to be as concise as possible within the limitations of the demands of the information to be presented (10-12 pages). (10Proposals should be typed, double spaced and should follow a certain manual of forms (system) of his choice. No covers of any kind are desired, just write your name on the upper right hand side of the first page. A thesis proposal will not be divided into chapters. The dividers between sections of the proposal are simple centre headings announcing the sections that follow.
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INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING THESIS PROPOSAL(continued)

Centre heads are not underlined. It is not expected to be at the top of a new page unless the previous section ends at the bottom of a page. Write the proposal in the present or future tense. Thesis proposal is like a contract protecting the student even though committee members may change their minds later. Changes can typically be made with the approval of the director of the thesis. Use the proposal as your guide to write the thesis.

 

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VARIABLES
A variable is a concept - a noun that stands for variation within a class of, say furniture (chair, table, cupboard, bed, etc.) or a class of people (gender, eye colour, motivation, achievement, etc). If all members of a class are identical, we do not have a identical, variable. Such characteristics are called constant. constant. In any study, some characteristics will be variables, while variables, others will be constant. constant.

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CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES

Variable can be classified into several ways.

 Quantitative vs. Categorical - (variables).  Manipulative vs. Outcome - (variables).

 Experimental vs. Treatment - (variables).

Discuss each variable in class clearly and thoroughly to enable students to understand their meanings.

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THE FINDINGS
y Identify each finding in detail. y Arrange according to their order of importance. y Describe each finding in detail and write them in the form of a thesis.

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THE CONCLUSIONS
y Write the conclusions in line with the findings. y The arrangement of the conclusions should correlate with the
position of the findings.

y Write them in the form of a thesis.

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THE RECOMMENDATIONS
y What are recommendations ? y Study carefully both the findings and the conclusions. y Think of some points which should be related to both the findings and the conclusions. y Such points are called recommendations.

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FIFTH SEGMENT

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THE PROCESS OF WRITING


 Use

specific referencing system.  Any system will be good enough but has to be very consistent throughout.  Use specific terminologies associated with the discipline.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Bibliography includes texts and all other sources that have been referred to in the body of the dissertation. The Bibliography is the final section of the dissertation and is located after the appendices. Bibliographies at the end of chapters are unnecessary.

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES (Harvard System)


The information primarily consists of:

the name of the author;  the year of publication;  the title of the publication;  the place of publication;  the name of the publisher.

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PRACTISE WRITING BIBLIOGRAPHY


Published as single edition. Published in subsequent edition. Collected works. Reference to specific chapters in edited collections. Articles in periodicals. Unpublished material. NonNon-English texts. NonNon-authored texts. NonNon-print media. Electronic media. Internet.
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KEY ISSUES RELATED TO RESEARCH PRESENTATION


1.

Thesis writing 1.1 The process of writing thesis. 1.2 Written convention of research methods. 1.3 The audience.

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2.0 The Content of a Thesis


          

Title page. Abstract of the research. Lists of contents. Lists of Tables (if any). Lists of Figures (if any). Lists of appendices. Author Declaration. Acknowledgement. Texts (Main body of the dissertations). Appendices. Bibliography.

The thesis consists of three parts, that is the preliminary text, the main text and the supplementary text.

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2.3 Academic Writing Skills


 Clarity

should be well organized.  Constructive arrangement of facts.  Tenses should be consistent throughout.  Use third person.
 Facts

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2.4 Planning for Presentation


 Good

preparation of the draft.  Styles of presentation.  Overall presentation of thesis.

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The End of the Course Module (RMD 557)


What will you be?

Or

Thank You...
SULAIMAN SHAMSURI