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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Defination & Classification of Wastes


Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor,is called Solid Waste.
1.Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. 2.E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. 3.Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants 4.Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. 5.Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. 6.Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants

Sources of Wastes

Households

Commerce and Industry

Sources of Wastes
Agriculture

E waste

IF WASTE PRODUCED IN ALL CLASS-I CITIES IS TACKLED, PERCENTAGE OF WASTE SCIENTIFICALLY MANAGED WOULD BE 72.5% OF TOTAL WASTE. Source: MOUD (2005)

Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste


Compostable / Bio-degradable = 30% - 55% matter (can be converted into manure)

Inert material = 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)


Recyclable materials = 5% - 10%(Recycling) These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits

Effects of Solid Waste


1.Buildup of GHGs primarily CO2, CH4 and N20 , causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise. 2.C02 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, wood and wood products, and solid waste. 3.CH4 is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. 4.N02 is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the US emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.

7 Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003.

5. Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions.

6. Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.
7. This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems. 8. Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our national parks might be permanently altered. 9. Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags.

10. Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran 11. Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods 12. Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach

13. Industrialised countries have waste management problems, so they transfer it into developing country.

14. Urban waste are dumped along the highways,canals & on the vacant land in villages, which leads to breeding of flies, mosquitoes,rats & villagers feel helpless against such sanctioned pollution.

REASONS OF IMPROPER MANAGEMENT


1. Existing number of transportation vehicle is inadequate. 2. Vehicle routes are not planned properly. 3. Manpower, equipment and resources are inadequate. 4. There is no scientific treatment or processing of waste done before it being dumped on the site. 5. The location of the dumping site is improper as it is close to Rivers many times. 6. Lack of public awareness and participation. 7. Irrational manpower deployment.

8. Lack of coordination among various agencies involved. 9. Lack of regular monitoring.

10. Lack of training of key personnel.


11. No segregation of waste at source of generation. Infectious and hazardous waste are also getting mixed with the municipal waste. 12. Negligence towards primary storage of waste at the source of generation. 13. Unavailability of suitable storage/ community bins at desired locations.

14. Irrational distribution of storage/ community bins. 15. Poor maintenance of collection points and community bins, thus creating unhygienic conditions around bins. 16. Multiple handling of waste.

17.Only about 70% of the total area under Jammu Municipality is attended regularly for sweeping and collection of waste.
18. About 56% of the total waste generated is collected properly for final disposal at defined disposal site.

19. Manual loading is being practiced at maximum places.

ONE TRUE FACT


Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid waste management of which,

(a) 60-70% of the amount is on collection alone


(b) 20% - 30% on transportation (c) Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste, which mostly Affects our health & socio-economic conditions

Existing system of Solid Waste Management


MUNICIPAL WASTE INDUSTRIAL WASTE

RELIGIOUS WASTE

HOSPITAL WASTE

BURNT IN OPEN OR INCINERATED IN PLANTS

COLLECTION BIN
TRANSPORTED MANUALLY

COLLECTION POINT
TRANSPORTED BY VEHICLES

FILTH DEPOT
TRANSPORTED MECHANICALLY

DISPOSAL SITE

(Source JMC)

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IDEAS Cities must collect only WET wastes, daily at doorstep, for composting. DRY wastes collection by informal sector, once or twice a week. Collect GARDEN & PARK waste separately, once a week, for local composting. DO NOT add drain silt, road dust, debris lots into garbage trucks.

TWO METHODS FOR DOORSTEP COLLECTION

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ZERO WASTE COLONIES COMPOST WASTE AT HOMES OR LOCALLY

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MARKET WASTE IS EASY TO VERMI - COMPOST

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DRY RECYCLABLES NEED SEPARATE COLLECTION ROUTES AND SORTING SPACES

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OR COMPOST PLANTS WILL DROWN IN WASTE PLASTIC :

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SHREDDED PLASTICS MAKE EXCELLENT BITUMEN ROADS BY A PATENTED PROCESS

Collect through schools:


1 free pencil for 1 kg plastic; 2. Sell pooled class collection for Eco Club activities.
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PLAN AHEAD for RECYCLING:


AVOID or BAN RIGID PVC for food, water, medicine, cosmetics, jars, feeders. They are toxic for infants. One PVC bottle makes 1000 PET bottles useless for viable recycling.

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COMPOSTING IS THE BEST WAY TO RECYCLE ORGANICS

Spray biocultures, then shape heaps into windrows. Turn weekly or at least once.
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Sieve stabilised waste to get compost for farmers

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CITY COMPOST + CHEMICAL FERTILISERS WORK WONDERS:


Reduce Chem. Fert 50%, buy compost with savings. Drought-proofing, less waterings, 15-25% higher yields in all crops tried.This is paddy 6 weeks after transplanting.

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Keeping plastics out reduces windrow volume & area by another 20%. Keeping debris out of garbage reduces weight transported by 1/3rd. Zero-waste campuses = 15% less waste MCD MUST BUY BACK ITS OWN COMPOST FOR GARDEN USE Only 7% combustibles after rag - picking. LOW calorific value, 800-1200 kcal/kg.,so dont use Waste To Energy(WTE)plant

RECYCLE DISPOSAL SPACE


Mumbais Gorai dump is full & stinks. Residents nearby wanted it closed. BMC gave a 1 ha x 6 m high garbage heap for bio-remediation with cultures. Cost: Rs 10 lacs got 60% of area down to ground level + 40% under compost heaps, usable for BMC parks & trees after sieving. Benefit: Land worth Rs 600/sft was retrieved for re-use @ Rs 10-15/sft !

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Research Analysis
Results from field measurement illustrated that the rainy season showed an influential effect on methane emission in both managed landfills (five to six times higher than other seasons) and unmanaged landfills (two to five times higher). [Ref.1] In a study it was observed that about 65% of the samples recovered from the dumpsites of about 10 year old was fine particles.[Ref.2] This fine fraction of the samples can be used as compost for non-edible crops or as cover material to future landfills after determining the geotechnical suitability.

NALA GARDENS:
Beautiful Storm-water Drains
(Case study)

Storm-water drains are the dirtiest parts of most cities


Waste from apartments or slums is thrown into them
They are used as public toilets Keepers of street pigs break drains and man-holes to create mud-wallows in nalas for their pigs Sewage is let out into nalas by new buildings, contaminating drinkingwater lines nearby

Pune city beautifies its Nalas. Osho Teerth was first, in 1991
12 acres of degraded wasteland beside a sewage-ridden stream became a lovely Zen Garden, 900 m long x 6070m wide.

2 settling ponds with 30 - 20 cm level drops remove 80% solids. Gambusia


fish control mosquitoes.

Settling pool cleans 5 mld water flow at start of 1 km Kondwa nala garden
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Sludge removed regularly is used for garden contouring & nursery plants. Eqpt removes oil coming from
Railway Yard.

Summer water flow is 2mld. Peak monsoon flows of 300 mld bypass the 2 biological ponds.

In the 2 serpentine aeration ponds, small water-falls aerate water. Bends create needed turbulence.

Turbulent flow in rocky nala-bed aerates the water, reducing smell

Pune Citys Ambiloda garden uses a giant water-jet & rocky stream-bed to aerate 10-12 mld nala flow

Fully Fencing any new nala garden is the 1st and only costliest requirement. Firms may sponsor
sections for advts.

Half-round pipe for Nala training is inexpensive and effective

but freak floods can wash off the unpaved side gardens

Nala-training with Stone Pitching protects plantings during floods

Manholes are cleaned and repaired regularly for sewage to run below carve round garden strip

Watchman uses a portable pump to water garden with nala waste-water

Nala-bed grasses are encouraged.

Over-Bridge to Slum is fenced so residents can cross with dry feet.

Tall chain-link fence on over-bridge keeps garbage out of nala garden.

Debris in nala was used as soling for paths, then covered with soil

Long winding walk-ways lead to cuddapah-stone crossings

Quick-growing 6-month-old poplars hide the nala fencing

Soil+planting costs Rs 5 lac per km Ornamental grasses are cheap and easy to maintain.

Creepers conceal the stone embankments of steep nalas

Open seating invites public activities in nala garden

Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corp has transformed a stinking quarry to a scenic lake.

13a quarry with 3-6 m water gave 5a forest,7a lake, 4a activity area

Slums of 8000 population were fenced but undisturbed

Waste-water inflow channel to the quarry was cleaned and concreted

Cannas planted where waste-water enters quarry help in initial cleaning. Creepers beautify the rocky walls.

Rock islands in quarry lake will be developed for recreation

PCMC is making a jogging track around a dying pond to save it.

The benefits of storm-nala beautification are enormous


Ribbon parks spread throughout the city provide recreation and reduce air pollution. Local health and hygiene are improved
Stray pig and dog menace is minimised

Annual drain desilting costs are slashed


Contamination of fresh-water is reduced Sewage-treatment costs come down

Lake quality in downstream is vastly improved

The cost - benefits of beautification are unbeatable


Storm-drain gardens cost Rs 50 lacs per km Most of this is for good permanent fencing, concrete channels for low-flow water, and stone pitching of steep nala banks, which reduces siltation in downstream. Pay-back in savings on desilting, sewage treatment cost & health care is 3-4 years.

What are we waiting for ??


Plan a nala-garden in every city today!

References
1. Annop Nopharatana,Shabbir,chart,komsilp(2009) Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand,164,249-261. 2. J. kurian,S.esakku,K.palanivelu,A selvam(2003) Studies on landfill mining at solid waste dumpsites in india Centre for environmental studies, anna university, chennai. 3. http://www1.ximb.ac.in 4. http://www.swlf.ait.ac.th 5. http://ec.europa.eu/ 6. http://www.environmentevents.org 7. http://www.bharatbook.com 8. http://www.almitrapatel.com 9. . http://www.springer.com 10.Jammu Municipal Carporation 11. www.greenpeace.org 12. www.teri.res.in