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QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

PRESENTED BY:
ROHIT CHANDRA SIMRANJEET SINGH RAJAN MITTAL PARMEET SINGH MANVIR SINGH

It is not every question that deserves an answer.


Publius Syrus (roman,1st century B.C.)

A Good Questionnaire Appears


As easy to compose as a good poem But, it is usually the result of long, painstaking work

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW OF THE MAJOR DECISIONS


1. What should be asked Questionnaire relevancy All information collected should address a research question in helping the decision maker in solving the current marketing problem Questionnaire accuracy Increasing the reliability and validity of respondent information requires that: 2. How should each question be phrased? 3. In what sequence should the questions be arranged? 4. What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? 5. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised?

PHRASING QUESTIONS
Open ended questions
Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words
What things do you like most about your job? What comes to mind when you look at this advertisement?

Advantages:
Are most beneficial in exploratory research, especially when the range of responses is not known. May reveal unanticipated reactions toward the product. Are good first questions because they allow respondents to warm up to the questioning process.

Disadvantages:
High cost of administering open-ended response questions The possibility that interviewer bias will influence the answer Bias introduced by articulate individuals longer answers

Fixed alternative questions


Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint.
Did you work overtime ? Yes or NO.

Advantages:
Require

less interviewer skill Take less time to answer Are easier for the respondent to answer Provides comparability of answers
Disadvantages:
Lack

of range in the response alternatives Tendency of respondents to choose convenient alternative

Types of Fixed-Alternative Questions


Simple-dichotomy questions

Requires the respondent to choose one of two alternatives (e.g., yes or no).

Did you make any long distance calls last week? (Yes or No).

Determinant choice questions

Requires the respondent to choose one response from among multiple alternatives (e.g., A, B, or C).
Please give us information about your flight First class Business Class Coach class

Frequency Determination Questions


Asks for an answer about general frequency of occurrence (e.g., often, occasionally, or never).
How frequently do you watch MTV Channel? Every Day 5-6 times a week Once a week Never

Checklist questions
Allows the respondent to provide multiple answers to a single question by checking off items.
Please check which of the following sources of about investments you regularly use

Personal advice of your broker Brokerage research reports Reports on internet Non of these

Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise


Structured
Example: Example:

Unstructured

Undisguised

Typical descriptive survey Survey with open-ended with straight-forward, structured questions to discover new questions answers or focus group interview

Example:

Example:

Disguised

Survey interview to measure brand As image versus competitive brands images or brand recall (unaided recall)

Projection techniques used mostly for exploratory research

PHRASING QUESTIONS FOR SELFADMINISTERED TELEPHONE AND PERSONAL INTERVIEW SURVEYS


The means of data collectiontelephone interview, personal interview, self-administered questionnairewill influence the question format and question phrasing.
Eg. How you are satisfied with after sale service of your laptop?

Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Slightly dissatisfied Very dissatisfied

ART OF ASKING QUESTIONS


Avoid complexity :Use simple , Conversational language Avoid leading and loading questions Leading : A questions that suggest or implies certain answers. Loaded : A questions that suggest socially desirable answer or is emotionally changed Avoid ambiguity : Be specific as possible

Avoid double barreled Items


A questions that may induce Bias because it covers two issue at once.
Between you & your husband who does the housework over and above that done by any hired help? I do all of it I do almost all of it I do over half of it We split the work fifty-fifty.

Avoid making assumptions Avoid Burdensome questions that may tax respondent Memory

WHAT IS THE BEST QUESTION SEQUENCE?


ORDER BIAS
Bias caused by the influence of earlier questions in questionnaire.

FUNNEL TECHNIQUE
Asking general questions before specific questions on order to obtain unbiased responses.

FILTER QUESTION
Question in a questionnaire that screams out respondent not qualified to answer a second question

PIVOT QUESTION
Filter question use to determine which version of second question will be asked

Factors Influencing the Sequencing Questions Anchoring effect


The

first concept measured tends to become a comparison point from which subsequent evaluations are made. Randomization of items on a questionnaire susceptible to the anchoring effect helps minimize order bias.

Order of alternatives on closed questions


The

order of choices should be rotated if producing alternative forms of the questionnaire is possible.

WHAT IS THE BEST LAYOUT?


Layout of traditional questionnaire Layout of internet questionnaire

LAYOUT OF TRADITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE


Multiple-grid
Several

question

similar questions arranged in a grid format.

The

title of a questionnaire should be phrased carefully:


To

capture the respondents interest, underline the importance of the research the interesting nature of the study to the respondents ego

Emphasize Appeal

Emphasize To

the confidential nature of the study

not bias the respondent in the same way that a leading question might

LAYOUT OF INTERNET QUESTIONNAIRE

Graphical User Interface (GUI) The researcher can control the background, colors, fonts, and other features displayed on the screen so as to create an attractive and easy-to-use interface between the user and the Internet survey Layout Issues

Paging by going from screen to screen Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down

Push buttons A small outlined area, such as a rectangle or an arrow, that the respondent clicks on to select an option or perform a function, such as submit

Status bar
A visual indicator that tells the respondent what portion of the survey he or she has completed.

Radio Button

A circular icon, resembling a button, that activates one response choice and deactivates others when a respondent clicks on it. A space saving device that reveals responses when they are needed but otherwise hides them from view.

Drop-down Box

Check Boxes

Small graphic boxes, next to an answers, that a respondent clicks on to choose an answer; typically, a check mark or an X appears in the box when the respondent clicks on it.

Open-ended Boxes
Boxes

where respondents can type in their own answers to open-ended questions. that appear at selected points and contain information or instructions for respondents.

Pop-up Boxes
Boxes

SOFTWARE THAT MAKES QUESTIONNAIRE INTERACTIVE


Variable
Allows

piping software

variables to be inserted into an Internet questionnaire as a respondent is completing it.

Error

trapping software
the flow of an internet questionnaire.

Controls

Forced

answering software

Prevents

respondents from continuing with an Internet questionnaire if they fail to answer a question.

Interactive
A

help desk

live, real-time support feature that solves problems or answers questions respondents may encounter in completing the questionnaire.

HOW MUCH PRE TESTING AND REVISING ARE NECESSARY?

Pretesting Process

Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions.
A tabulation of the results of a pretest to help determine whether the questionnaire will meet the objectives of the research.

Preliminary Tabulation

Designing Questionnaires for Global Markets


Back Translation
Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language. A questionnaire developed in one country may be difficult to translate because equivalent language concepts do not exist or because of differences in idiom and vernacular.

THANK YOU
LMT School Of Management