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HARSHIT NIJHAWAN 090101080 CSE-A

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Definition Types Algorithms An Example Text generation Receiver Key generation Cipher text generation Protocols Uses Conclusion

What is Cryptography?

This is the art of keeping messages secret .

There are Two types of cryptography

Secret Key Cryptography

Follows SYMMETRIC ALGORITHMS. Single key used to encrypt and decrypt. Key must be known by both parties.

Public Key Cryptography-

Follows ASYMMETRIC ALGORITHMS. Each entity has 2 keys: private key (a secret) public key (well known)

Using Keys

Private keys are used for decrypting. Public keys are used for encrypting.

encryption plaintext ----------------- ciphertext public key decryption Ciphertext ----------------- plaintext private key

Algorithms, those are used in cryptography


1.DSA 2.RSA 3.Diffie-Hellman 4.ElGamal 5. ROT13 6. DES 7. RC2 to RC5 8. IDEA 9. Skipjack

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

Public key cryptography is also used to provide digital signatures.

signing Plaintext --------------- signed message private key verification signed message ------------------- plaintext public key

RSA algorithm
Named for its three inventors- Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.

1. n = p q (p & q are prime nos of equal length) 2. e randomly chosen integer. 3. f = (p-1)(q-1) 4. d = e^-1 mod f Encrypting: 5. C = P^e (mod n) Decrypting: 6. P = C^d (mod n)

Diffie-Hellman Algorithm
Designed for key exchange. Both parties create session key K.

(g^x mod p)^y mod p = (g^x mod p)^x mod p = g^xy mod p

Message Digest

Also known as hash function or one-way


transformation.

Transforms a message
of any length and computes a fixed length string.
Need of Digest-

Alisha could just encrypt her name, and then


Bijay could decrypt it with IMAGE

Alishas Signature

Alisha feeds her original message through a


hash function and encrypts the message digest with IMAGE key

Bijay can decrypt the message digest using


IMAGE key

Bijay can compute the message digest himself. If the 2 message digests are identical, Bijay
knows Alisha sent the message.

Revised Scheme Alisha

Bijay

Sign with

check signature using

IMAGE
encrypt using

IMAGE
decrypt using

IMAGE

IMAGE

TO ENCRYPT THE MESSAGE USE THE IMAGE AS A KEY


Calculate the each pixel value of the image and then XOR with the ASCII value of the message bit.

RECEIVER

Decoder using SYMMETRIC key

1.XOR 2.XOR

Swap

KEY GENERATION
KEY

IMAGE

MAT LAB

Gray value /intensity value

CIPHER TEXT CONVERSION

Algorithm

XOR

Algorithm

Swap (4-bit swap)+X OR operation

Alisha:

HI! HOW ARE YOU?

Encrypt using Image key HI!HOW ARE YOU

Protocols
Protocols, those are related to cryptography:SSL TLS HTTP PGP . and many more

Uses

Email

Electronic commerce

Electronic voting

Conclusion

Cryptography has undergone tremendous development since the days it had come into existence some 4000 years ago. Developments are also taking place in the area of digital steganography, quantum cryptography, chaotic cryptosystems etc.